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TETANUS

Tetanus [Greek - Tetanus (curing); English - Lockjaw] - an acute, non-contagious wound toxico-infectious disease of mammals of animals, birds and humans, characterized by increased reflex excitability, convulsive tonic convulsions of the muscles of the body under the influence of the toxin of the pathogen (see color insert).

Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. The disease has been known since ancient times. Hippocrates in the 4th century BC described tetanus in humans and drew attention to a characteristic clinical symptom - muscle stiffness. ND Monastyrsky (1883) discovered the causative agent. A. Nicholas (1884) described it in detail and experimentally caused the disease in small animals. Faber (1890) discovered a toxin. Bering and Knorr (1896) received antitoxic serum, and G. Ramon (1923) first produced the antitoxin.

Tetanus is recorded as sporadic cases in all countries of the world, mainly in horses and sheep. In the tropics, it can manifest as epizootic outbreaks. The economic damage is small, since the disease is quite rare and is not highly contagious, however, certain costs are required for preventive measures (vaccination, etc.).

The causative agent of the disease. The causative agent of tetanus is Clostridium tetani. These are thin sticks with rounded ends, growing well on anaerobic culture media. After 2 ... 3 days of cultivation, terminally located round spores are formed, giving the microbe the appearance of a drumstick.

In the process of reproduction in the body forms a number of toxins, of which the neurotoxin - tetanospasmin is of the greatest importance. Serologically distinguish up to 10 types of pathogen, which have no immunological and epizootological significance.

Vegetative cells of C. tetani are unstable to various environmental factors. Spores are very resistant, under favorable conditions they survive for over 10 years. Direct sunlight inactivates spores after 3 ... 5 days, heating at 100 ° C kills them in 1 ... 3 hours, autoclaving at 115 ° C in 5 minutes. Disinfectants act on spores slowly: in 5% phenol solution, they remain viable for 24 hours, in a 10% solution of bleach and tincture of iodine - 10 minutes

Epizootology. All types of mammals are susceptible to tetanus, to a large extent horses, then sheep, goats and cattle, pigs; less commonly, dogs, cats, and other carnivores. Birds are relatively stable, and cold-blooded animals are not sensitive to the pathogen. Young animals are more susceptible to the disease than adults, especially newborns are sensitive (they become infected through an umbilical cord contaminated with pathogen spores).

Sources of the causative agent of the infection and the reservoir are healthy animals, especially herbivores, in the intestines of which S. tetani are kept and propagated, which enter the soil with feces. The main factor in the transmission of the pathogen is the soil, the wide presence of the pathogen in which determines the widespread stationarity of the disease.

Tetanus is recorded as sporadic cases. The disease is non-contagious. In vivo infection occurs as a result of the pathogen spores getting into the ground, manure, etc. into the wounds.

Pathogenesis. When tetanus spores get into damaged tissues, under conditions of anaerobiosis, they multiply at the site of penetration and secrete toxins (mainly tetanos-pazmin). The toxin with blood flow or through nerve trunks penetrates the spinal cord and medulla, is adsorbed at the ends of motor neurons. Under the influence of a toxin, acetylcholine, which irritates nerve cells, is released in the nerve synapses. Overexcitation of the latter causes increased reflex excitability, prolonged tetanic (tonic) convulsions (rigidity). Continuous muscle contractions make it difficult to feed, the heart and lungs, cause exhaustion, a large loss of energy. The death of an animal occurs as a result of exhaustion due to loss of energy by the body, asphyxia and circulatory disorders, paralysis of the respiratory center and heart.

The course and clinical manifestation. The incubation period from Zdney to 3 weeks. The course is acute. The most characteristic disease occurs in horses. The first signs are rigidity of the masticatory muscles (trismus), as a result of which the animal is not able to open its mouth, difficult intake of food and water, muscle tension and stiffness of movement, loss of the third century, especially noticeable when lifting the head up. With the development of the disease, the muscles of the neck, back, abdomen, croup and limbs become hard, the movement of the animal is difficult or impossible at all. The auricles are motionless, the tail is raised. The breathing is quicker, shallow, along the costal arch a gutter is formed, the stomach is tightened, the mucous membranes are cyanotic. The pulse is frequent and hard. Peristalsis is slow, feces and urine are difficult to excrete. The body temperature is normal, but before death rises to 40 ... 42 "C. The disease usually lasts 6 ... 12 days, with an acute course, the animal dies after 1 ... 2 days. Mortality ranges from 50 ... 90%.

In cattle, the development of the disease is accompanied by a convulsive contraction of the muscles of the whole body.
The activity of the gastrointestinal tract is also noticeably disturbed: peristalsis is slow, there is no chewing gum, the scar is enlarged, its movement is not felt, feces and urine are difficult to excrete in patients. Sick animals are excited, but in cattle, compared with animals of other species, reflex excitation is much less. Profuse sweating is observed, especially during seizures. The disease lasts from several days to 2 ... 3 weeks. Mortality reaches 50% and higher.

In sick sheep, lethargy, general weakness, and involuntary convulsive movements of the head are observed. Set the termination of chewing gum, tympanum of the scar, tense gait, tension of the tail. The head is convulsively thrown back (opistotonus), the jaw is tightly compressed, the back is elongated. Animals die with suffocation. Death occurs 4 ... 6 days after the onset of clinical signs. In lambs, tetanus sometimes takes on the character of an epizootic; in acute cases, the disease lasts 6 ... 13 days, mortality reaches 95 ... 100%.

In dogs, the incubation period lasts from 7 to 20 days, sometimes longer (up to several months). The disease can occur in generalized and localized forms. In the first case, all muscles are involved in the process, in the second - a separate group of them. The localized form of the disease usually ends in recovery. With the generalized form of tetanus, the gait is difficult, the limbs are apart, the tail is raised, the head and neck are pulled in, the skin on the forehead is folded, the eyes are fixed, the jaw is compressed (trismus), as a result of which swallowing is difficult or impossible. Noise and light increase seizures and seizures. Death occurs from asphyxiation or exhaustion.

I acknowledge the pathological anatomy. ” Generally uncharacteristic. Rigid rigor mortis is expressed well, blood is dark in color and poorly clotted, sometimes the muscles are the color of boiled meat, pierced by hemorrhages. Dystrophic changes in the liver and kidneys are noted; hemorrhages on the epicardium, in the heart muscle and on the pleura; expansion of the heart and pulmonary edema.

Diagnostics and differential diagnostics. The diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory results, taking into account epizootological data. Pieces of tissue from deep layers of wound lesions, secretion, pus, discharge from wounds are sent to the laboratory. If tetanus occurs after childbirth or abortion, vaginal and uterine secretions are examined.

Laboratory studies are carried out in two directions: the isolation of the causative agent of tetanus and the detection of its toxin in a bioassay on white mice. The diagnosis of tetanus is considered established when a tetanus toxin is detected in the material or a toxic culture of the pathogen is released.

With differential diagnosis, rabies, acute muscle rheumatism and food poisoning must be excluded. In horses, in addition, infectious encephalomyelitis, in dairy cows - grassy tetany.

Immunity, specific prevention. After natural tetanus overtreatment, immunity is short-lived.

For specific prophylaxis of the disease, a vaccine is widely used - tetanus toxoid, which creates a tense and long-lasting, up to several years, immunity. For passive vaccination, antitoxic tetanus tetanus serum is also used.

Prevention The basis of tetanus prophylaxis is the prevention of injuries, the correct and timely primary surgical treatment of wounds, the cleanliness of obstetric care, the observance of the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during operations. To create active immunity in animals in stationary dysfunctional sites, as well as a month before castration, concentrated tetanus toxoid is used. Immunity occurs 30 days after immunization and persists in horses up to 5 years old, in animals of other species for at least 1 year.

For prophylactic purposes in complicated wounds and various operations, difficult births, extensive injuries, burns, it is advisable for animals to administer antitoxic serum produced by the medical industry and antibiotics.

Treatment. A sick animal is isolated, placed in a shaded room with plenty of litter and create conditions that ensure the absence of external stimuli. They give easily digestible food, it is advisable to make nutritive enemas with glucose (400 g per 1 liter of water), cleansing enemas and massage of the bladder. A thorough surgical treatment of wounds with irrigation with antiseptic solutions is carried out.

As a specific therapeutic agent, antitoxic tetanus toxoid serum is used subcutaneously, intravenously or intramuscularly. At the same time, antimicrobials (antibiotics), symptomatic and sedatives are prescribed.

Control measures. There are no quarantines or restrictions in a tetanus-poor household. Sick and suspicious animals are not allowed to slaughter for meat. Sick animals are treated. The bodies of dead animals without skinning are sent for technical disposal.
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TETANUS

  1. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute infectious disease caused by the action of the toxin secreted by the bacillus of Nicolaera (Clostridium tetani), a microorganism that can remain viable for many years while in the ground. This bacillus easily penetrates the human body through a wound, especially if dirt enters the wound. See the article SHOOTS, taking into account that the metaphysical meaning of tetanus
  2. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute toxemia caused by the action of exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produced by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin is produced by the vegetative forms of the microorganism at the place of its penetration into the body tissue, and then enters the central nervous system and is fixed there. Etiology. The causative agent of tetanus is an obligate anaerobic, thin gram-positive motile
  3. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by tonic skeletal muscle tension and periodic generalized seizures, which is associated with damage to the motor structures of the central nervous system by the toxin of the pathogen. The causative agent of tetanus has the ability to produce the strongest exotoxin, which is associated with clinical manifestations
  4. TETANUS (TETANUS)
    Tetanus is an acute wound infectious disease of animals and humans, characterized by damage to the nervous system, reflex excitability and convulsive contraction of the muscles of the body without impaired consciousness. Etiology. The causative agent of tetanus is widespread in nature, there are many in the soil of gardens and vegetable gardens, in manure. There is evidence that it multiplies in the intestines of animals, with their feces
  5. Tetanus
    ETIOL. Clostridium tetani. AF: exotoxin (tetanospazmin - neurotoxin and tetanohemolysin). IST: soil, feces herbivores. alive. and people. Thief: wounds, burns, frostbite, childbirth, abortion. PZ required conv. - lack of O2. Input gate - 1) tetanospazmin - dvig. fiber perip. nerves + hematogenous - NS - paralysis standing up. neur. polysynaptic refl arc - violated. percent braking - convulsions. 2)
  6. Tetanus
    Scope of examination 1. Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by toxic damage to the nervous system, manifested by tonic convulsions. The causative agent of the disease is the anaerobic spore-forming bacillus of Clostridium tetani. 2. Entrance gates are wounds or other damage to the skin and mucous membranes, including burns, frostbite, scuffs, criminal abortions,
  7. Tetanus
    ETIOL. Clostridium tetani. AF: exotoxin (tetanospazmin - neurotoxin and tetanohemolysin). IST: soil, feces herbivores. alive. and people. Thief: wounds, burns, frostbite, childbirth, abortion. PZ required conv. - lack of O2. Input gate - 1) tetanospazmin - dvig. fiber perip. nerves + hematogenous - NS - paralysis standing up. neur. polysynaptic refl arc - violated. percent braking - convulsions. 2)
  8. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the neurotropic toxin of anaerobic tetanus bacillus, characterized by attacks of tonic seizures. In newborns, the infection penetrates through the umbilical wound, in older children through any wound, especially a contaminated one. Extremely dangerous contaminated ground punctured and lacerated wounds with crushed tissues, due to the danger of anaerobic
  9. TETANUS
    Tetanus is an acute wound toxicosis of animals caused by Clostridium tetanus and characterized by damage to the nervous system, reflex excitability and convulsive muscle contraction without impaired consciousness. The causative agent lives mainly in soil containing manure. There is evidence that pathogenic clostridia, multiplying in the intestines of animals, are excreted into the external environment along with feces.
  10. TETANUS
    Harry H. Beaty Definition. Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by endotoxin produced by bacteria entering the wound (Clostridium tetani). Generalized increase in rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles are typical for it. Etiology. Tetanus bacillus is strictly anaerobic gram-positive motile
  11. TETANUS
    An acute wound infectious disease characterized by increased reflex excitability, tonic convulsive contractions of all or certain muscle groups of the body under the influence of CI toxin. tetani, formed at the site of pathogen entry into the body. All types of mammals are susceptible to tetanus, mostly horses, then sheep, goats, cattle, and
  12. Tetanus
    Tetanus
  13. tetanus (pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment)
    Tetanus (tetanus) is an acute infectious disease caused by exposure to tetanus bacillus exotoxin with a predominant damage to the nervous system, characterized by tonic and convulsive contractions of striated muscles. Etiology: Clostridium tetani - in the external environment exists in the form of extremely stable spores, which with favorable anaerobic
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