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Veterinary of noble Russia (XVIII century)

For Russia, the eighteenth century was the heyday of the reforms of Peter the Great. It was characterized by the strengthening of feudal-feudal relations, the development of trade and industry, the organization of educational and scientific institutions.

In 1725, the Academy of Sciences was opened. To prepare new scientific personnel, a university and a gymnasium were created at it. In 1755, Moscow University was opened. Subsequently, such gymnasiums were opened in each provincial city.

Since 1705, the intensive organization of stud farms began. Veterinary services for horses in the Khrenovsky stud farm were carried out by L. M. Evest, the author of the book “Full Russian Horse Book”. He was engaged not only in the treatment and prevention of diseases, but also trained qualified veterinary specialists. The veterinarian of this plant was his student, serf I.P. Korchagin. After his death, S.P. Kurlin, a graduate of the veterinary department of the Medical and Surgical Academy, worked as a senior veterinarian of the Khrenovsky plant.

Peter the Great called veterinary medicine “good science” and took measures aimed at training qualified specialists who can treat and prevent animal diseases. In 1715, he proposed the selection of capable people in each province, to train them in the skill of blacksmiths and horse-goers, and to prepare from them a reserve for the army.

In 1733 in the village. Khoroshevsky near Moscow created a boarding school, which trained specialists in veterinary medicine and blacksmithing. Students, among other disciplines, were taught the Latin language "so that ... they could know ... the names of herbs and other medicines belonging to horses ...". Each student was required to be able to castrate stallions, shoe horses and prepare horseshoes.

Already in 1733, each stud farm was required to have one konovalu and several competent Russian students. In those years, shepherds, a stableman, and blacksmiths provided medical assistance to animals in peasant farms on the basis of rational folk veterinary medicine.

For the treatment of sick horses, special “lek” stables (horse infirmaries) were built, which were built in elevated places out of moss, covered with straw, and stalls were filled with dry litter.

In those years, the staff of each cavalry regiment was 10 konovalov. Initially, the army was staffed with veterinary specialists at the expense of self-taught practitioners and foreigners. Since 1715 they were prepared in the provinces ("in the provinces, to teach good Konovalsky science").

Measures to prevent mass animal diseases

Government decrees aimed at preventing massive common diseases of animals provided for severe penalties for their violation. But diseases continued to spread and caused great economic damage and social damage.

The efforts of the Government in this direction continued in the ХУ111 century. In 1746, the Senate issued a decree entitled "On precautions against cattle death." This decree is the first attempt to explain the causes of mass animal diseases by their contagiousness. The methods of infection and the spread of disease are shown. Accordingly, measures are described aimed at preventing this spread of disease.

In 1756, the Academy of Sciences in the journal "Monthly Writings for the Use and Amusement of Employees" published recommendations: "What methods are needed to suppress the death of the bestial". In 1758, the same Academy published the brochure “Brief instruction on how to deal with cattle cases, especially when there is a cattle infection”. These instructions at that time reflected the international level of knowledge of the causes of mass animal diseases. The medical office recognized them "completely adequate for treating livestock."

Already in 1761, sick animals were offered to be handed over to the police for execution and buried corpses in deep holes. In 1771, the "Commission for the Protection and Treatment of Pestilent Infectious Ulcers" was created. The guidelines for the prevention of animal diseases developed by this commission considered isolation of patients and keeping animals in clean, disinfected stables the best way.

Thus, observations of sick animals and the dissemination of knowledge about them and their diseases made it possible in the 21st century in Russia to formulate better laws and recommendations to animal owners aimed at preventing mass diseases.

The main events of this period was the creation of the Academy of Sciences, as a basis for the formation of applied disciplines, including veterinary medicine. This allowed the organization of schools for veterinarians for stud farms and the army. Graduates of these schools had a significant impact on the development of rational folk veterinary medicine and its formation as an industry serving the national economy.

Formation of the scientific basis of veterinary sanitation

The scientific foundations of veterinary medicine in Russia were laid by the Academy of Sciences, whose members, taking into account international experience, observations of domestic scientists, their own research and the achievements of rational folk veterinary medicine, developed scientifically-based recommendations aimed at preventing mass morbidity in animals.

It is characteristic that in the ХУ111 century the Russian governments, which did not have sufficient knowledge about the reasons for the appearance and mass spread of endemic animal diseases, paid much attention to improving the veterinary and sanitary business. Government orders were passed to streamline meat and livestock sales points, to organize special places for slaughtering animals, and to control animal trafficking.

The Senate decree of 1719 on the sale of lean meat forbade butchers to kill sick animals and sell the meat thus obtained. In the same year, the decree “On the beating of cattle by butchers in the place shown” required the slaughter of animals in places specially designated for this purpose.

In 1722, the Moscow Police Office was ordered to keep the places where meat was sold clean and animals slaughtered. In 1728, the same instruction was given to all governors. A decree of 1733 stipulated that persons selling meat should undergo a medical examination. Government decrees were regularly issued to prevent the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, both from abroad and within the country.

The very name of the decree of 1756 "On the observation of cleanliness in St. Petersburg and its environs, on the allocation of special places outside the city for the burial of dead cattle; on the content for watching over the scavenger removal of special pickets; the appointment of special caretakers for slaughterhouses; about keeping yard dogs on chains and setting up an agenda for county residents so that they have every precaution against bestial cases, ”speaks for itself.

Thus, in the ХУ111 century, Russian legislation on veterinary and sanitary matters was very progressive and scientifically substantiated for its time.
There is reason to believe that a high level of veterinary and sanitary requirements and control over their observance was a very important event of this time, which significantly reduced the probable potential incidence and mortality of animals from common diseases.

Pharmacy and the popularization of knowledge of the basics of veterinary medicine

In the same period, pharmacy business was established and developed in Russia. The first "horse" pharmacy was established at the Stables Office in 1733. Two horsemen and six students worked in it. At the pharmacy, medicines were prepared and sent to various places at the request of the stables and factory guards. She had her own garden for growing medicinal plants. In addition, medicines were collected in the field: in Bronnitsa in marshy places and in Pakhrin in high places. Tight control was carried out over the rules for the use of drugs.

The ХУ111 century in Russia was characterized by the fact that knowledge of rational folk veterinary medicine not only continued to be transmitted orally to the next generation of people engaged in keeping and healing animals, but attempts were also made to present this experience in manuscripts. The serf konoval of Prince G.F. Dolgorukov composed a manuscript entitled "This book the horse healer was composed to the house of Prince Grigory Fedorovich Dolgorukov, the man evo Volodimir Ivanov, son of Vereshchagin, and was written with his own hand in 1723."

Part of this manuscript is devoted to the maintenance, care, feeding and breeding of horses. But a large place in it is occupied by chapters devoted to veterinary medicine: "On diseases of natural equine or natural", "On the fuse", on gastrointestinal, surgical and other diseases. The manuscript author is alien to any mysticism. It sets out the many years of positive experience of rational folk veterinary medicine

In 1756, the instruction “What methods of suppressing the cattle case is needed” was issued, and in 1758 - “Brief instruction on how to act in the case of the cattle case, especially when the infection between cattle”.

The printing house of Moscow University in 1774 printed "The bestial cattle, or testimony of means that serve to cure all kinds of livestock and birds, especially horses and so on. diseases that happened. ” It was developed on the basis of translated foreign publications on veterinary issues. In 1788, its second edition appeared. In 1778, “Pocket horse-drawn showing the use of a horse on travel and medicines for diseases that occur”, as well as “A description of the present and exact place or nest where glanders occur, and ways to cure it” were translated from French.

In 1779, the “Book of horse medicament” and “Useful to the nobles were handed over, or a collection of everything that the most important writers offered them the light most useful for preserving horses” was published.

The outstanding figure of education and book publisher N.I. Novikov in 1783 published a book, “Urban and Rural Conoval”. It gained great popularity. It took a reprint of this book.

Of great importance in the development of veterinary medicine and in the publication of veterinary literature was played by the Free Economic Society, established in 1765. It announced competitions for the best works in this field and published them. In 1773, this society published a book by Andrei Beherakht, “Prevention of Livestock”, in 1780, the booklet “On the Protection of Cattle in Their Illnesses through Inoculation” and “On the Case in Cattle”.

In 1795, a book by L. M. Evest and V. R. Levshin “Full Russian Horse Book” was published by the Free Economic Society. This book has been reprinted several times. In it, the authors sought to scientifically substantiate the methods of treatment and prevention and sharply condemned "art, which consists in superstition, which we inherited from our ancestors."

The Academy of Sciences of Russia has done a lot to popularize veterinary medicine in the ХУ111 century. In 1784 she published the “Manual on how to treat horses in various injuries and diseases that happened to him during trips, explained in lectures by UG Volkshtein”. In 1800, academician I.I. Lepekhin published the results of his pathological and clinical studies, taking into account similar works by other authors, in a brochure entitled "Methods for aversion in the cattle case and means for treating the sowing disease of the employees proposed by academician I. Lepekhin."

In 1789, in Moscow, a multi-volume “Dictionary of the healing of diseases occurring in the human race, in the cattle breed, in the horse race and in the family of domestic birds” began to be published.

N.P. Osipov continued the efforts of other authors aimed at the scientific justification of the methods of keeping, feeding and treating animals. He devoted these issues to the book, published in 1791, “The Newest and Most Perfect Russian Horse Expert, Rider, Hunter, and Horse Rider”. Vice-rector of Moscow University I.S. Andreevsky in 1793 published in Moscow "A new complete methodological treatment of horse, cattle and other domestic animals, such as: sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, cats and poultry". This author in 1795 in the pamphlet “Instruction, or the depiction of the rules that actually belong to the conservation of horse health” sharply criticized the mystical healer aspect of veterinary practice

It is appropriate to dwell on the publications of A.T. Bolotov on animal hygiene and the use of manure to increase the yield of grain and leguminous crops. In his articles “On the use of cattle manure in the steppe and in such places where there is no habitual respect for land”, “On clearing manure”, “On the dung store” and many others. Thus, he argued proved the great importance of hygiene for maintaining the health of animals and the benefits of manure, when properly stored and used in field cultivation as a fertilizer.

Much attention was paid to the description of animal and medicinal diseases used by the peasants of the Urals and Siberia P.S. Pallas in his work “Traveling to Different Provinces of the Russian Empire”.

Thus, in the ХУ111 century in Russia, the main event in the development and establishment of veterinary medicine was the active drawing of attention to its problems by government bodies, the scientific community and various publishing houses of printed literature.

Tsarist and senate decrees were issued on various problems of disease prevention, including quarantine, sanitary and hygienic measures. The problems of veterinary medicine were attracted by the Academy of Sciences of Russia and the Free Economic Society. Numerous authors have published translated foreign and original Russian books on the problems of veterinary medicine.

Some of them were written on the basis of our own research and took into account the positive experience of rational folk veterinary medicine. At the same time, superstitious, mystical ideas about the causes of the appearance, spread and treatment of animal diseases were sharply criticized.
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Veterinary of noble Russia (XVIII century)

  1. Veterinary medicine of Russia until the 18th century
    The development of veterinary medicine during this period can be traced back to handwritten works. In the X11 - X1U centuries in Kiev, translations from Latin and Greek languages ​​of collections of animal information, animal anatomy, written by Andrei Vesalius, textbooks and manuals on pharmacopeia, and other books on natural science appeared. Ivan III (1462-1505) established a printing house in Moscow, where it was printed, translated
  2. Lesson 3 Topic: MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA IN THE EPOCH OF DEVELOPED FEODALISM (XVIII CENTURY)
    Goals and objectives: 1. To characterize the shifts that have occurred in the socio-economic situation of Russia and the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, as conditions for the accelerated development of medicine. 2. To consider the formation of medicine as a system within its sections. 3. To determine the occurrence of objective prerequisites for the formation of professional assistance to the population. Medical care organization in
  3. The development of medicine in Russia in the 18th century
    What was the name of the first state medical institution in Russia? -Petersburg Admiralty Hospital -Barnaul Central Hospital + Moscow Military Land Hospital In what year was opened the first hospital school in Russia? -1725 +1707 -1710 -1741 The main method of teaching in hospital schools: -cholastic + clinical Where was discovered
  4. The origin of veterinary medicine in Russia
    Archaeological studies show that in the territory of modern Russia, primitive man was a farmer and livestock farmer for another 6-8 thousand years BC. Primitive people brought domesticated animals to this region in the process of natural resettlement and development of new agricultural territories. Such movements were necessary for the development of new pastures and land
  5. Lesson 8 Topic: DEVELOPMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND PEDIATRICS IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    Goals and objectives: 1. To acquaint students with the state of obstetrics and pediatrics in Russia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 2. To achieve understanding by students of the objective need for the development of obstetrics and pediatrics in Russia. The logical structure and main elements of the lesson: The problem of combating childhood morbidity and mortality in Russia in the 18th century. The role in solving this problem of the works of M.V.
  6. Veterinary during the years of Soviet power in Russia
    Active participation of Russia in the hostilities of the First World War 1914-1917 required the mobilization of most veterinarians to serve in the army. Because of this, the veterinary service of animals of the national economy was sharply weakened. If we consider that before the war, such service was insufficient and imperfect, one of the main reasons for mass distribution will become clear.
  7. Lesson 6 GOLDEN AGE OF CLINICAL MEDICINE IN RUSSIA
    Questions for discussion: 1. The formation of clinical medicine. Clinical Approval The activity of G. Burhaave (1668 - 1738). The introduction of physical examination methods. Formation of domestic deontology. Domestic therapists: M.Ya. Mudrov, S.P. Botkin, G.A. Zakharyin. 2. The formation of surgery on a scientific basis. The doctrine of blood transfusion. The discovery of K. Landsteiner. Discovery and
  8. Veterinary medicine during the formation of precapitalist relations in Russia (1800 - 1860)
    This period was characterized by the emergence of veterinary medicine as a science, the enormous problem of which continued to be massive animal diseases. Many veterinarians approached their scientific understanding, but the problem continued to remain very difficult not only for the health of animals, but also for people. In 1803, Minister of the Interior Kochubey invited Alexander the First to open
  9. Veterinary medicine during the formation of capitalism in Russia (from the 60s of the XIX century to 1917)
    As you know, in 1849, Pollender discovered motionless filamentous formations in the blood of a fallen cow. In 1850, Daven found the same formations in the blood of a cow who died from anthrax and a dead person. In 1855, a professor at the Yurievsky (Derpt) Veterinary School, Brauel experimentally reproduced anthrax in animals by introducing them with such filiform formations with
  10. Physical development of socially different populations of children and adolescents living in various territories of Russia in the first decade of the 21st century
    In the previous paragraph, the hygienic characteristics of the studied populations of children and adolescents were given and their social differences were shown. Since physical development is considered as an indicator of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population, it can be assumed that it will have differences in these populations. For the description and analysis of indicators of physical development were selected
  11. Hygienic characteristics of socially different populations of children and adolescents living in various territories of Russia in the first decade of the 21st century
    The study was performed by the method of natural hygienic experiment using methods of epidemiological studies. The following populations of children and adolescents were studied: 1. Children living in the Moscow metropolis and studying in 11 general education institutions (longitudinal monitoring). 2. Children and adolescents - social orphans, pupils of state
  12. Kolesnichenko I.S. History of Veterinary Medicine, 2010
    Contents: The origin of veterinary medicine. The origin of veterinary medicine in Russia. Veterinary medicine in the ancient world. Veterinary medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (V-XVII centuries). Veterinary medicine of Russia until the 18th century. Veterinary medicine of noble Russia (XVIII century). Veterinary medicine during the formation of precapitalist relations in Russia (1800 - 1860). Veterinary medicine of the formation of capitalism in Russia (from
  13. Lesson 4 Topic: MEDICINE IN RUSSIA OF THE I HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY. PATHOGENESIS THEORIES
    Goals and objectives: 1. To show the most important socio-economic events from the history of Russia in the first half of the 19th century. (Patriotic War of 1812. The Decembrist uprising of 1825, peasant unrest, defeat in the Crimean War, etc.). And against their background, to reveal the further development of revolutionary democratic thought in the writings of A.N. Radishchev, V.G. Belinsky, A.I. Herzen and others, and its influence and statement in
  14. TURN OF THE CENTURY
    Inversion of the eyelids is a pathological condition in which the edges of the eyelids turn inward to the eyeball, contributing to trauma to the conjunctiva and cornea. In Persian cats, this is a birth defect that is common enough. Often, inversion of the eyelids develops as a complication of chronic conjunctivitis. Symptoms: increased lacrimation, the palpebral fissure is narrowed, the cornea is cloudy,
  15. Inversion of the eyelids
    Inversion of the eyelids can be in all animals, but most often it is observed in dogs. In this disease, the plane of the free edge of the eyelids, which normally adjoins the eyeball evenly, is turned inwards or for some extent. With a strong degree of inversion, not only the free edge is turned to the eye, but also the skin surface of the eyelid along with the eyelashes, which causes irritation of the cornea. IN
  16. Inversion of the eyelids
    Etiology. When ectopic, part or all of the edges of the eyelids turn outward and move away from the cornea. The causes of ectopic eyelids are: 1) damage with a large defect in the tissue (wounds, burns, eczema, dermatitis), when the scar tissue that develops at the site of the injury pulls the edge of the eyelid outward - cicatricial eversion; 2) conjunctival disease, when a strongly edematous tissue pushes the edge of the eyelid from the eye -
  17. Inflammation of the eyelids
    Etiology. Inflammation of the eyelids can be due to a variety of reasons. The most common cause is eyelid irritation due to mechanical, thermal or chemical influences. In violation of the integrity of the skin, microbes and parasitic fungi can penetrate, which leads to the occurrence of parasitic and infectious diseases. Inflammation of the eyelids can cause various complications of wounds, bruises, burns;
  18. IN THE CENTURY OF ENLIGHTENMENT
    XVIII century marked the entry of humanity into the era of the New Age - a historical period characterized by modernization in many areas of life. Идейной основой процесса модернизации явилось просвещение, которое в странах Европы (и в России тоже) стало широким культурным движением, благодаря чему сами современники назвали свое столетие «веком Просвещения». Свободомыслие, жажда знаний и
  19. XVIII
    Важнейшим генетическим выводом всего нашего исследования в той связи, которая нас интересует, является основное положение, гласящее, что ребенок приходит к мышлению в понятиях, что он завершает третью ступень развития своего интеллекта только в переходном возрасте. «Этот примитивный вид мышления, — говорит Кречмер, — обозначают так же, как комплексное мышление (Прейс), поскольку нередко
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