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Veterinary medicine of noble Russia (XVIII century)
For Russia, the eighteenth century was the heyday of the reforms of Peter the Great. It was characterized by the strengthening of feudal serfdom, the development of trade and industry, the organization of educational and scientific institutions.
In 1725, the Academy of Sciences was opened. To prepare new scientific personnel, a university and a gymnasium were created at it. In 1755, Moscow University was opened. Subsequently, such gymnasiums were opened in each provincial city.
Since 1705, the intensive organization of stud farms began. Veterinary services for horses in the Khrenovsky stud farm were carried out by L. M. Evest, the author of the book “Full Russian Horse Book”. He was engaged not only in the treatment and prevention of diseases, but also trained qualified veterinary specialists. The veterinarian of this plant was his student, serf I.P. Korchagin. After his death, S.P. Kurlin, a graduate of the veterinary department of the Medical and Surgical Academy, worked as a senior veterinarian of the Khrenovsky plant.
Peter the Great called veterinary medicine “good science” and took measures aimed at training qualified specialists who can treat and prevent animal diseases. In 1715, he proposed to select capable people in each province, to train them in the skill of blacksmiths and horse-drawn men, and to prepare from them a reserve for the army.
In 1733 in the village. Khoroshevsky near Moscow created a boarding school, which trained specialists in veterinary medicine and blacksmithing. Students, among other disciplines, were taught the Latin language "so that ... they could know ... the names of herbs and other medicines belonging to horses ...". Each student had to be able to castrate stallions, shoe horses and prepare horseshoes.
Already in 1733, each stud farm was required to have one konovalu and several competent Russian students. In those years, shepherds, grooms, and blacksmiths provided medical assistance to animals on peasant farms on the basis of rational folk veterinary medicine.
For the treatment of sick horses, special “lek” stables (horse infirmaries) were built, which were built on elevated places out of moss, covered with straw, and stalls were filled with dry bedding.
In those years, the staff of each cavalry regiment was 10 konovalov. Initially, the army was staffed with veterinary specialists at the expense of self-taught practitioners and foreigners. Since 1715 they were prepared in the provinces ("in the provinces, to teach good Konovalsky science").
Measures to prevent mass animal diseases
Government decrees aimed at the prevention of mass epidemic diseases of animals provided for severe penalties for their violation. But diseases continued to spread and caused great economic damage and social damage.
The efforts of the Government in this direction continued in the ХУ111 century. In 1746, the Senate issued a decree entitled "On precautions against cattle death." This decree is the first attempt to explain the causes of mass animal diseases by their contagiousness. The methods of infection and the pathways of the spread of diseases are shown. Accordingly, measures are described aimed at preventing this spread of disease.
In 1756, the Academy of Sciences in the journal "Monthly Writings for the Use and Amusement of Employees" published recommendations: "What methods are needed to suppress the death of the bestial". In 1758, the same Academy published the brochure “Brief instruction on how to deal with cattle cases, especially when there is a cattle infection”. These instructions at that time reflected the international level of knowledge of the causes of mass animal diseases. The medical office recognized them "completely adequate for treating livestock."
Already in 1761, sick animals were offered to be handed over to the police for execution and buried corpses in deep holes. In 1771, the "Commission for the Protection and Treatment of Pestilent Infectious Ulcers" was created. The guidelines for the prevention of animal diseases developed by this commission considered isolation of patients and keeping animals in clean, disinfected stables the best way.
Thus, the observation of sick animals and the dissemination of knowledge about them and their diseases made it possible in the 21st century in Russia to formulate better laws and recommendations to animal owners aimed at preventing mass diseases.
The main events of this period was the creation of the Academy of Sciences, as a basis for the formation of applied disciplines, including veterinary medicine. This allowed the organization of schools for veterinarians for stud farms and the army. Graduates of these schools had a significant impact on the development of rational folk veterinary medicine and its formation as an industry serving the national economy.
Formation of the scientific basis of veterinary sanitation
The scientific foundations of veterinary medicine in Russia were laid by the Academy of Sciences, whose members, taking into account international experience, observations of domestic scientists, their own research and the achievements of rational folk veterinary medicine, developed scientifically-based recommendations aimed at preventing mass morbidity in animals.
It is characteristic that in the ХУ111 century the Russian governments, which did not have sufficient knowledge about the reasons for the appearance and mass spread of endemic animal diseases, paid much attention to improving the veterinary and sanitary business. Government orders were adopted to streamline meat and livestock sales points, to organize special places for slaughtering animals, and to control animal trafficking.
The Senate decree of 1719 on the sale of lean meat forbade butchers to kill sick animals and sell the meat thus obtained. In the same year, the decree “On the beating of cattle by butchers in the place shown” required the slaughter of animals in places specially designated for this purpose.
In 1722, the Moscow Police Office was ordered to keep the places where meat was sold clean and animals slaughtered. In 1728, the same instruction was given to all governors. A decree of 1733 stipulated that persons selling meat should undergo a medical examination. Government decrees were regularly issued to prevent the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, both from abroad and within the country.
The very name of the decree of 1756 "On the observation of cleanliness in St. Petersburg and its environs, on the allocation of special places outside the city for burying dead cattle; on the content for watching the pick-up of the fall of the special pickets; the appointment of special caretakers for slaughterhouses; about keeping yard dogs on chains and setting an agenda for county residents so that they have every precaution against bestial cases, ”speaks for itself.
Thus, in the ХУ111 century, Russian legislation on veterinary and sanitary matters was very progressive and scientifically substantiated for its time.
There is reason to believe that a high level of veterinary and sanitary requirements and control over their observance was a very important event of this time, which significantly reduced the probable potential incidence and mortality of animals from common diseases.
Pharmacy and the promotion of knowledge of the basics of veterinary medicine
In the same period, pharmacy business was established and developed in Russia. The first "horse" pharmacy was established at the Stables Office in 1733. Two horsemen and six students worked in it. Medicines were prepared at the pharmacy and sent to various places at the request of the stables and factory guards. She had her own garden for growing medicinal plants. In addition, medicines were collected in the field: in Bronnitsa in marshy places and in Pakhrin in high places. Tight control was carried out over the rules for the use of drugs.
The ХУ111 century in Russia was characterized by the fact that knowledge of rational folk veterinary medicine not only continued to be transmitted orally to next generations of people engaged in keeping and healing animals, but attempts were also made to present this experience in manuscripts. The serf konaval of Prince G.F. Dolgorukov composed a manuscript entitled "This book the horse healer was composed to the house of Prince Grigory Fedorovich Dolgorukov, the man evo Volodimir Ivanov, son of Vereshchagin, and was written with his own hand in 1723."
Part of this manuscript is devoted to the maintenance, care, feeding and breeding of horses. But a large place in it is occupied by chapters devoted to veterinary medicine: "On diseases of natural equine or natural", "On the fuse", on gastrointestinal, surgical and other diseases. The manuscript author is alien to any mysticism. It sets out the many years of positive experience of rational folk veterinary medicine
In 1756, the instruction “What methods of suppressing the cattle case is needed” was issued, and in 1758 - “Brief instruction on how to deal with the cattle case, especially when the infection is between cattle”.
The printing house of Moscow University in 1774 printed "The bestial cattle, or testimony of means that serve to cure all kinds of livestock and birds, especially horses and so on. diseases that happened. ” It was developed on the basis of translated foreign publications on veterinary issues. In 1788, its second edition appeared. In 1778, “Pocket horse-drawn showing the use of a horse on travel and medicines for diseases that occur”, as well as “Description of the present and exact place or nest where glanders occur, and ways to cure it” were translated from French.
In 1779, the “Book of horse medicament” and “Useful to the nobles were sent, or a collection of everything that the most important writers offered them the light most useful for preserving horses” was published.
The outstanding figure of education and book publisher N.I. Novikov in 1783 published the book "Urban and Rural Conoval." It gained great popularity. It took a reprint of this book.
Of great importance in the development of veterinary medicine and in the publication of veterinary literature was played by the Free Economic Society, established in 1765. It announced competitions for the best works in this field and published them. In 1773, this society published a book by Andrei Beherakht, “Prevention of Livestock”, in 1780, the booklet “On the Protection of Cattle in Their Illnesses through Vaccination” and “On the Case in Cattle”.
In 1795, a book by L. M. Evest and V. R. Levshin “Full Russian Horse Book” was published by the Free Economic Society. This book has been reprinted several times. In it, the authors sought to scientifically substantiate the methods of treatment and prevention and sharply condemned "art, which consists in superstition, which we inherited from our ancestors."
The Academy of Sciences of Russia has done a lot to popularize veterinary medicine in the ХУ111 century. In 1784 she published the “Manual on how to treat horses in various injuries and diseases that happened to him during the campaigns, explained in lectures by UG Volkshtein”. In 1800, academician I.I. Lepekhin published the results of his pathological and clinical studies, taking into account similar works by other authors, in a brochure entitled "Methods for aversion in the cattle case and the means to cure the sowing disease of employees proposed by academician I. Lepekhin."
In 1789, in Moscow, a multi-volume “Dictionary of the Healing of Diseases Occurring in the Human Race, in the Cattle Race, in the Horse Race, and in the Poultry Race” began to be published in Moscow.
N.P. Osipov continued the efforts of other authors aimed at the scientific justification of the methods of keeping, feeding and treating animals. He devoted these issues to the book “The Latest and Perfect Russian Horse Expert, Rider, Hunter and Horse” published in 1791. Vice-rector of Moscow University I.S. Andreevsky in 1793 published in Moscow “A new complete methodological guide for horse, cattle and other domestic animals, such as: sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, cats and poultry”. This author in 1795 in the brochure “Instruction, or the depiction of the rules that actually belong to the conservation of horse health” sharply criticized the mystical healer aspect of veterinary practice
It is appropriate to dwell on the publications of A.T. Bolotov on animal hygiene and the use of manure to increase the yield of grain and leguminous crops. In his articles “On the use of cattle manure in the steppe and in such places where there is no habitual respect for land”, “On clearing manure”, “On the dung store” and many others. Thus, he argued proved the great importance of hygiene for the preservation of animal health and the benefits of manure, with its proper storage and use in field cultivation as a fertilizer.
Much attention was paid to the description of animal and medicinal diseases used by the peasants of the Urals and Siberia P.S. Pallas in his work “Traveling to Different Provinces of the Russian Empire”.
Thus, in the ХУ111 century in Russia, the main event in the development and formation of veterinary medicine was the active drawing attention to its problems from government bodies, the scientific community and various publishing houses of printed literature.
Tsarist and senate decrees were issued on various problems of disease prevention, including quarantine, sanitary and hygienic measures. The problems of veterinary medicine were attracted by the Academy of Sciences of Russia and the Free Economic Society. Numerous authors published translated foreign and original Russian books on the problems of veterinary medicine.
Some of them were written on the basis of our own research and took into account the positive experience of rational folk veterinary medicine. At the same time, superstitious, mystical ideas about the causes of the appearance, spread and treatment of animal diseases were sharply criticized.
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Veterinary medicine of noble Russia (XVIII century)
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