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Veterinary examination of fish
When selling fish and fish products to the markets, enterprises or organizations of any form of ownership should be provided with certificates of conformity for the products sold.
Gosvetkontrol in the markets include: inspection of vehicles; checking the availability of veterinary and other accompanying documents and the correctness of their registration; veterinary and sanitary examination of fish products; sampling for veterinary sanitary examinations and sending them, if necessary, for research to veterinary or other accredited laboratories; control over the sanitary condition of places of trade, packaging, inventory, storage and auxiliary facilities, refrigerators, as well as the presence and condition of workwear; control over the disposal, recycling of products and confiscated products, recognized by the results of veterinary and sanitary examination unsuitable for food purposes; execution of regulations and acts in violation of trade rules; control over the disinfection, disinfestation, disinsection; imposing penalties for violation of veterinary and sanitary requirements.
In the study of fish for helminthiasis, 5 specimens of each species of fish are selected that are more susceptible to diphyllobothriasis (pike, perch, ruff, pike) and opisthorchosis (ide, dace, tench, roach, etc.).
The conclusion about the good quality of fresh fish is given on the basis of organoleptic evaluation and, if necessary, laboratory tests.
Fish products with expired sales and questionable freshness are not allowed to be sold on the market.
The procedure for inspection of fish. The appearance, the fatness of the fish, the condition of the integuments, mucus, scales, eyes, gills (color), and the degree of numbness of the muscles and abdominal distention are visually evaluated. If necessary, intact fish is opened and the internal organs are examined, as well as the sample is cooked. To do this, take 100 g of purified fish without internal organs, pour a double volume of water and boil for 10 minutes. Determine the smell of steam, broth and boiled product. The broth from a benign fresh fish is transparent. On the surface of a drop of fat, the smell is pleasant, specifically fishy, muscle tissue is well divided into muscle bundles. The taste of broth and fish is pleasant, without bitterness and mustiness.
Live clinically healthy fish swim back up. The surface of the fish is clean, the color is natural, covered with a thin layer of mucus. Scale fish scales shiny, tight to the body. Fish should not have mechanical damage, signs of disease. Injuries to the lower and upper jaws are allowed during hook fishing, slight reddening of the surface as a result of mechanical shocks.
Steamy, fresh fish has a well-marked stiffness of the muscles (when pressed with a finger, the fossa in the region of the dorsal muscles quickly disappears). The scales are shiny with a pearl shade, tight to the body, transparent mucus, without blood impurities. The skin is elastic, without blemishes. The fins are solid, the gill covers tightly cover the gill cavity, the eyes are bulging, the cornea is transparent, there may be separate hemorrhages in the anterior chamber, the abdomen is not swollen, the anus is not bulged out, without outflow of mucus. On the incision, the muscular tissue is elastic, it fits snugly to the bones, and in the transverse section of the dorsal muscles there is a characteristic color for each type of fish. The internal organs of natural color and density, without tumors, the intestines are not swollen, without putrid odor,
Fish of dubious freshness is characterized by a slight stiffness of the muscles (when pressed with a finger, the fossa in the region of the spinal muscles disappears slowly). Scales dull, easily pulled out. The mucus is cloudy, sticky, with a sour smell. The skin is easily separated from the muscles. Gill covers loosely cover the gill cavity, the gills are covered with a large amount of dull mucus of a reddish color with a smell of mustiness, their color is from light pink to light gray. Eyes sunken, cornea dull. The abdomen is flat, deformed, often swollen. Muscle tissue is juicy, easily divided into individual fibers. In cross section, the spinal muscles are dull. The kidneys and liver are slightly swollen in the decomposition stage, the bile paints the surrounding tissues in a yellow-green color. The intestine is slightly swollen, soft, in some places pink. When the sample is cooked, the broth is hazy, there is little fat on the surface, the smell of meat and broth is unpleasant.
In poor quality fish there is no stiffness of the muscles (when pressed with a finger, the fossa in the region of the spinal muscles remains for a long time or does not flatten at all), the scales are easily separated, the mucus is cloudy, dirty-gray, sticky, with an unpleasant smell, the skin is folded, friable. The gills are dark brown to dirty gray, the gill petals are covered with turbid, mucous mucus with an unpleasant putrid odor, and the gill covers are open. Eyes hollowed, shrunken, dried up. The abdomen is swollen, soft, drooping, with dark or greenish spots on the surface. The anal opening protrudes, the mucus of an unpleasant putrefactive smell flows out of it. Muscle tissue is loose, soft, spreading into bunches. The internal organs are dirty gray or gray-brown, emit a sharp putrid odor. When making the sample by cooking, the broth is cloudy, with flakes, there is no fat on the surface, the smell is unpleasant, putrid.
The purity of freshwater crayfish is determined by the results of organoleptic data (mobile crayfish, with firm, smooth, without breaking the integrity of the dark brown or greenish color shells, bent at the joints with claws and a bent abdomen), and if necessary, carry out bacteriological studies.
Organoleptic studies of frozen fish include: determining the color, appearance, condition of the outer cover, the presence of external damage (breaks, cuts, cracks), determination of texture, smell and taste. Before conducting organoleptic studies, frozen fish is thawed beforehand.
A benign frozen fish should be covered with unbroken or slightly beaten (except herring) scales and have a natural color for each species. Some reddening of the external covers and the presence of surface "yellowing" that does not penetrate the skin (whitefish, salmon, nelma, lake salmon) are allowed. The color of the gills can vary from intense red to dull red. The cut surface of the muscle tissue in the region of the dorsal fins has the same color characteristic of each species of fish. Muscle tissue after thawing should not have extraneous odors. During prolonged storage in the refrigerator in fatty fish, the presence of a faint odor of oxidized fat is allowed on the surface. In fish, frozen in a living state: the eyes are bright, on the roll out, with a transparent cornea, the eyeball is bulging, behind the eye socket, the fins are spread, the scales are covered with a thin layer of frozen transparent mucus. Good quality in doubtful cases is confirmed by the results of laboratory studies.
In benign salted fish, the surface of its silver-whitish or dark-grayish color (in strong-salted fish may be tarnished with a light yellowish tinge). Abdomen whole, slightly softened. Gill petals pink or red. Muscular tissue in moderately salty fish is moderately dense, in medium and low-salted soft consistency. The meat of large fish in the cut has a uniform color. The smell and taste is pleasant.
Tuzluk has a pink, cherry or light brown color (when salted), slightly cloudy, with a pleasant, specific smell. Mild fat oxidation on the body surface and brine, which is determined by organoleptic studies, is allowed.
A cold-smoked benign fish should have a golden color, a clean, dry surface, can vary from straw yellow to brown, the fish should have shiny scales. Scales firmly on the skin and covers its entire surface. Abdomen whole, dense consistency (in herring - moderately soft) muscle tissue - grayish-yellow color, dense texture, slightly crumble when cut; in far eastern salmon (chum, pink, seal, chinook, etc.) and in herring, it can be soft or hard; Smell and taste - pleasant. It is allowed to have a protein-fat sate on the fish surface, a slight salt deposit, the scale is crushed, and for the herring fish there is a faint smell of oxidized fat.
Smoked fish meat, for example, in a roach, has a dark red color, turning into yellowish or opal-amber in places, the back is oily, transparent; in pike perch, the meat is white, without salt protruding on the surface, in sturgeon it is gray-yellow in color, in perch it is white, and in pink salmon it is red.
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Veterinary examination of fish
- VETSANEXPERTIZE OF FRESH FISH AT INFECTIOUS DISEASES
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