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Inversion of the eyelids
Inversion of the eyelids can be in all animals, but most often it is observed in dogs. In this disease, the plane of the free edge of the eyelids, which normally adjoins the eyeball evenly, is turned inwards or for some extent. With a strong degree of inversion, not only the free edge is turned to the eye, but also the skin surface of the eyelid along with the eyelashes, which causes irritation of the cornea. As a result, keratitis, ulcers develop, and as a result, perforation and opening of the anterior chamber occur. Inversion of the eyelids can be on one eye or on both.
Etiology. The disease occurs due to cicatricial contraction of the conjunctiva, cartilage deformation, convulsive contraction of the circular muscle of the eyelids, sagging skin of the upper eyelid. Spastic inversion occurs on the basis of chronic inflammatory processes of the conjunctiva and other parts of the eye and at the same time, the retraction of the eyeball retractor, due to which the eyeball is drawn deep into the orbit.
Cicatricial inversion is observed mainly in horses and cattle on the basis of cicatricial contractions of the conjunctiva and in chronic processes in it. In dogs, chronic conjunctivitis, especially follicular, is one of the common causes of inversion. Often an inversion appears after the removal of the third century. Pathological changes in the eyeball itself, accompanied by atrophy of it and enophthalmos also cause an inversion of the eyelid. The same should be said for congenital malformations of the eyeball. In all these cases, the edges of the eyelids do not meet sufficient support, and therefore the surface of the edge of the eyelid is drawn inward.
This form of eyelid twisting is often observed in horses. A known role in the origin of the inversion of the eyelids is played by heredity.
Clinical signs. During inversion, the free (ciliary) edge of the eyelid partially or throughout is wrapped inward towards the eyeball. The palpebral fissure is narrowed, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, incorrect position of the edge of the eyelids and eyelashes are noted; in advanced cases, inflammation of the cornea, clouding and ulceration of it. Eye drawn into orbit.
Treatment. With inversion of the eyelids, treatment should be aimed at eliminating the underlying cause. With a mild spastic inversion, you can limit yourself to applying an adhesive plaster or strengthen the eyelids in an appropriate position with intradermal sutures. Surgical treatment should be considered more reliable, with the use of which it is necessary to rush, especially if the eyelashes wrapped inside irritate the cornea and conjunctiva. The most common operation for the inversion of the eyelids is to excise a fold of the skin. The operation is simple. Small animals are fixed on the operating table, large animals are operated in a standing position, under local anesthesia. After preparing the surgical field, an oval skin flap of the required size is cut out with a scalpel, retreating from the edge of the eyelids by several millimeters. Stitches are placed on the edges of the wound.
Some surgeons leave the wound without seams, allowing the edges of the incision to come closer by scarring; the result may be insufficient convergence of the edges or excessive contraction; therefore suturing is mandatory.
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Inversion of the eyelids
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