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Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
There are 5 main diagnostic methods:
1) microscopic - allows you to detect the pathogen directly in the material taken from the patient. To do this, the smear is stained in various ways. This method plays a decisive role in the diagnosis of many infectious diseases: tuberculosis, malaria, gonorrhea, etc.
2) bacteriological - consists in sowing the test material on a nutrient medium. This method allows you to select the pathogen in its pure form and to study its morphological characteristics, enzymatic activity and identify it;
3) biological method - carried out by isolating the pathogen during infection of laboratory animals that are susceptible to this disease.
This method is expensive, therefore it is applied to a limited extent;
4) serological research methods - based on the identification of specific immune antibodies in the patient's blood serum. For this, various immunological reactions are used: the Vidal test (used to detect typhoid fever);
5) allergic method - skin-allergic tests are performed, the introduction of the allergen cutaneous or intradermal; used to diagnose tuberculosis, tularemia, leprosy, etc.
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Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
- Immunological methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
H. Kesarwala, J. Kishiyama I. The immune response in infectious diseases. The immune response is a reaction to a foreign antigen, which leads to the accumulation and activation of cells involved in its removal. The course and outcome of any infection depends on the strength of the immune response to the pathogen antigens. A. Mechanical barriers - skin, mucous membranes, ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract -
- LABORATORY DIAGNOSTIC METHODS
The clinical picture of fungal skin diseases is very polymorphic, therefore, in all cases, the diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory research methods. For laboratory diagnosis of mycoses, microscopic, luminescent, cultural, immunological (allergological and serological) research methods are used, as well as animal experiments. Laboratory diagnostics
- Laboratory diagnostic methods
In a clinical blood test, you can find hypochromic anemia, but there may also be a vice versa, delayed ESR - bulb 12 / p. But often there is erythrocytosis. 2. Feces on the reaction of Gregersen. If, warn before FGS or not at all, tk. dangerously. 3. The study of the acid-forming function of the stomach. It is estimated on an empty stomach and with various modulation of acid-forming function. - bottomless method
- Laboratory research methods in the diagnosis of heart failure
Determination of the content of NPs in blood plasma It was shown that an increase in the concentration of circulating NPs - atrial, the so-called MNUP and its N-terminal fragment (NT-MNUP) is an early marker of LV dysfunction - both systolic and diastolic. In recent years, this approach has received the status of a diagnostic standard. High sensitivity of increasing the concentration of circulating MNUP
- Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of kidney disease.
Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of diseases
- Laboratory and instrumental studies that are used to diagnose bone and muscle diseases.
Most often, X-ray research methods are used to diagnose bone diseases. In recent years, ultrasound densitometry has been used to detect osteoporosis (a decrease in bone density). For the study of muscles, electromyography methods are used to determine the threshold of muscle electric excitability and the duration of the reaction, as well as specific biochemical
- Biochemical methods for the study of biological fluids in clinical laboratory diagnostics
Biochemical methods for the study of biological fluids in a clinical laboratory
- DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF ALLERGIC DISEASES
The effectiveness of therapy and prevention is largely determined by the quality of diagnostic measures aimed at identifying the causes and factors contributing to the emergence, formation and progression of allergic diseases. Diagnostic methods for allergic diseases include: 1. Collection of an allergy history (history of the disease and patient’s life). 2. An objective examination of the patient.
- QUESTION, INSPECTION OF PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. BASIC LABORATORY AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE
Diseases: diffuse thyrotoxic goiter, myxedema, acromegaly, gigantism, nanism, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, impaired fat metabolism. Demand: complaints of increased mental irritability, intermittent shallow sleep, decreased memory, irritability, lethargy, sweating, palpitations, tinnitus, itchy skin, increased thirst, significant weight loss. From the anamnesis: severe unrest,
- Ultrasonic and thermal imaging methods for diagnosing diseases of ENT organs.
Ultrasound diagnosis of the sinuses, TMJ. Echoencephalography (Greek. Echo echo, echo + anat. Encephalon brain + Greek. Grapho write, depict; synonyms: ultrasound encephalography, neurosonography) - a method of examining the brain using ultrasound. The soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull, and brain tissue have different acoustic impedances and
- 38. RESEARCH, OBJECTIVE RESEARCH, LABORATORY AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF RESEARCH IN DISEASES OF THE Pancreas
Patients with diseases of the pancreas (pancreas) may complain of abdominal pain, as well as dyspeptic symptoms and general weakness. Pain is most often localized in the upper abdomen, mainly in the epigastric region or left hypochondrium, radiating to the back, left shoulder. They can be acute, intense, girdling, with radiation to the lumbar region,
- GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES. CONDITIONS OF THE ORIGIN AND DISEASE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THEIR PREVENTION
The emergence and spread of various microbial diseases is due to the fact that some microbes under certain conditions can acquire the properties of pathogens. These are the so-called pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms can cause various diseases, including infectious ones. It is known that pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by strict specificity, i.e.
- Laboratory instrumental diagnostics
Diagnosis of severe chronic heart failure with clearly defined clinical manifestations usually does not present great difficulties. It is based mainly on the following clinical criteria for cardiac decompensation, shown in Table 50. In most cases, the diagnosis of chronic heart failure requires two "large" criteria or one "large" and two "small" criteria. IN
- Laboratory diagnosis of tissue helminthiases
Laboratory methods for tissue helminthiases, as a rule, are crucial for making and registering a diagnosis and selecting rational etiotropic therapy. In connection with the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of the described diseases, the methods of coprological research used to diagnose intestinal helminthiases are not informative. Currently, there are parasitological, immunological, including
- LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS
main indicators: specific gravity of blood plasma, monitoring of hematocrit, electrolytes • specific diagnostics: • microscopy of bowel movements - a characteristic form of pathogens (arranged in parallel in the form of fish schools, mobile). This allows you to make a preliminary diagnosis. • The classical study at the first stage involves sowing 1% alkaline peptone water followed by