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Epidemic Process Basics
The epidemic process is the occurrence and spread of infections among the population. For the emergence and continuous course of the epidemic process, the interaction of three factors is necessary: the source of the causative agents of the infection, the transmission mechanism of the infection, and the susceptible population. Shutting down any of these links interrupts the epidemic process. The biological basis of the epidemic process is the parasitic system, i.e., the interaction of the parasite and the host.
The causative agents of infectious diseases are divided according to the characteristics of the sources:
Diseases recorded only - Diseases of animals that are ill in humans, i.e. diseases, both human and diseases that black people infect from humans are infected from animals (liloveka (AIDS, syphilis, flu, shay, rabies, anthrax). measles, etc.).
By transmission mechanism is meant a method of moving an infectious agent from an infected organism to a susceptible one. This mechanism involves the change of three phases: removal of the microorganism from the host organism into the environment; the presence of the pathogen in the environment and the introduction of the pathogen into the perceptible
4. Zak. 361 living organism. Transmission mechanisms are divided into: fecal-oral, aerogenic (airborne), blood (transmissible), contact, vertical (from the mother to the fetus through the placenta). According to the transmission mechanism, L.V. was proposed. Gromashevsky classification of infectious diseases (see above).
The next element of the epidemic process is the susceptibility of the population. If the immune “layer” of the population is high, then we can assume that the state of epidemic well-being is achieved and the pathogen circulation stops. And vice versa, with a decrease in the immune layer of the population, certain infectious diseases increase. So, for example, in the 90s. in Russia, the immune layer of the population for diphtheria decreased, which led to a sharp increase in diphtheria patients. Therefore, the task of epidemiologists is to create in this group this “layer” by conducting mass vaccination against the corresponding pathogens.
In recent years, influenza vaccination has been widely used, which in general has led to a decrease in the incidence of influenza. The intensity of the epidemic process is expressed in terms of morbidity and mortality per 10 thousand or 100 thousand of the population. Epidemiologists distinguish three degrees of intensity of the epidemic process:
Sporadic incidence is the usual incidence rate of a given nosological unit in one territory at a given time.
Epidemic - the spread of infectious diseases among the population of a village, city or region.
Pandemic - the spread of infectious diseases among the population of different countries and continents. For example, a pandemic of the plague in the last century or the spread of HIV infection in the 20th century.
In accordance with the prevalence of S.V. Prozorovsky divided infectious diseases into: 1) crisis infections - infections that threaten the existence of the human population (HIV infection);
2) mass - causing more than 100 diseases per 100,000 population. The first place is occupied by influenza and SARS, which account for 92.5% of all cases of infectious diseases annually;
3) common managed - from 20 to 100 cases of the disease per 100 thousand population. Such diseases include those infections against which the population is vaccinated - diphtheria, tetanus, brucellosis, whooping cough. Although, despite the availability of preventive drugs, it cannot be said that everything is going well. So, among vaccinated against diphtheria, the disease is 57%;
4) common uncontrollable - incidence of less than 20 cases per 100 thousand population. This is a group of infections that require constant attention in terms of scientific research. This applies to meningococcal infection, leptospirosis, cytomegalovirus infection, etc .;
5) sporadic - single cases of incidence per 100 thousand population (rabies, typhus).
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Epidemic Process Basics
- Question 28 The epidemic process
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