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Millions of years ago, pathogenic microorganisms appeared on Earth, and only at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. a decisive turning point was achieved in the fight against the diseases caused by these microorganisms.
But on the threshold of 2002, medicine faced new problems: worsening of the epidemiological situation for many infections, rapid aging of the population, an increase in people with immunodeficiencies, which contributes to the widespread spread of diseases caused by opportunistic microorganisms. All this places increased demands on the preparation of students in terms of studying the causative agents of infectious diseases, with their identification and differential diagnosis.
When studying the subject "Fundamentals of Microbiology, Immunology and Virology", students acquire basic knowledge, abilities in accordance with the requirements of the State Standard. The subject of microbiology consists of a general and a special part. Students receive basic ideas about the role and properties of microorganisms, their distribution, effects on human health. This textbook on microbiology will help students of secondary medical educational institutions in the development of this interesting subject. The authors did their best to present the scientific material that contains up-to-date information on the microbiology teaching program.
This tutorial includes general microbiology and private, as well as the basics of virology. Each topic contains theoretical material and a manipulation algorithm that a student should master in the process of studying this subject. After each topic, questions are given for self-control and mutual control. To achieve greater efficiency of self-training, the authors at the end of the book gave a directory of terms.
Chapter 1 The subject of microbiology. History of its development
Microbiology is a branch of biology that studies the laws of life and the development of microorganisms in their unity with the environment. This science studies the properties of microorganisms, as well as their effect on macroorganisms. Bacteria populated the Earth many billions of years ago, long before the appearance of the first higher plants and animals, and now represent the largest and most diverse group of living organisms.
The abundance of material accumulated during the period of the scientific development of microbiology necessitated the division of this science into a number of specialized areas:
1. General microbiology - studies the structure and vital activity of microorganisms, their distribution in nature, heredity and variability.
2. Medical microbiology - studies the microorganisms that cause human diseases, and the processes that occur in the body during the introduction of pathogens.
3. Agricultural microbiology or agromicrobiology, studies microorganisms that play a role in increasing soil fertility, creating fertilizers.
4. Veterinary microbiology studies the microorganisms that cause animal diseases.
5. Industrial - studies microorganisms that are used in the manufacture of food products, antibiotics and other medicinal substances, creates ways to protect against harmful effects.
The main objective of microbiology is to study the properties of microorganisms that surround us everywhere — in water, soil, the human and animal organisms, in order to use the properties of microorganisms that are useful to humans in various sectors of the economy, as well as microorganisms that cause human and animal diseases, with the aim of exposure on them specific therapy and prevention of infectious diseases.
In addition, in the sanitary-bacteriological laboratories conduct research in order to identify the degree of microbial pollution of the external environment and various objects - maternity hospital, surgical departments, etc.
Medical microbiology is divided into:
bacteriology - the science of bacteria; virology - the science of viruses; immunology - the science of mechanisms for protecting the body from pathogenic and non-pathogenic agents; mycology, studying fungi pathogenic for humans;
* protozoology - studies unicellular pathogenic organisms;
* parasitology - studies helminths.
The task of medical microbiology is the development of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in order to create medicines for their prevention and treatment.
Simultaneously with the development of medical microbiology, immunology was formed. And a little later, sanitary microbiology, studying the sanitary-microbiological state of the environment and food. Medical microbiology has developed as a result of the study of infectious diseases. However, even before microorganisms were discovered, humanity was familiar with diseases. And already in the writings of Hippocrates there are assumptions about the connection of infectious diseases and special pathogenic fumes, which he called "miasms."
In the writings of ancient Greece, Hippocrates (460–377 BC), Lucretius (95–55 CE), Galen (131–211 BC) hypothesized the wildlife of infectious disease pathogens.
The peoples of Asia had certain ideas about the contagiousness of leprosy (leprosy) and carried out isolation of patients with this infection. Avicenna believed that the reason for the occurrence of contagious diseases is the living creatures invisible by the simple eye, transmitted through water and air.
But only with the development of chemistry, physics, medicine in the Renaissance and during the industrial revolution of the XVI-XVII centuries. in Western Europe and Russia, observations and scientific studies of the nature of infectious diseases began to accumulate.
The Dutch scientist A. Levenguk (1632-1723) saw and described microbes for the first time, who invented biconvex lenses with a magnification of 160 times. He was the first to notice how blood moves in the capillaries, and also saw sperm in the seminal fluid. In his homemade magnifying glasses, the scientist examined everything - rain water, meat, the eye of a fly. Imagine his amazement when he saw a lot of living organisms in plaque, in a drop of water and many other liquids.
The discoveries of Levenguk aroused the keen interest of many scientists and served as an impetus for the study of the microworld. But only after 150-200 years, the causes of fermentation and decay were clarified, the role of microorganisms in the etiology of infectious diseases, the cycle of nitrogen, carbon and other substances in the biosphere was established.
Already at the first stages of the development of microbiology, attempts were made to connect it with the practical tasks of combating infectious diseases.
The Russian doctor Samoilovich (1744-1805), drawing on the rich experience in the fight against plague, came to the conclusion that the plague is caused by a "special and completely excellent creature." To prove his assumption, in 1771 Samoilovich introduced himself infectious material taken from a person recovering from the bubonic form of the plague. For an in-depth study of the plague, Samoilovich was elected an honorary member of Western European academies.
One of the most interesting chapters in the history of microbiology is the creation of the smallpox method. In the XVIII century. 20 thousand people died of smallpox in Paris; 16 thousand people died in Naples. The English doctor Eduard Jenner noted that milkmaids who were infected with smallpox when milking sick cows were not infected by contact with sick people. In 1796, E. Jenner instilled in a healthy boy the contents of a purulent vesicle from a cow sick with smallpox. After 1.5 months, he instilled in him material from a person with smallpox.
The boy did not get sick. Since then, vaccinations have brought mankind a deliverance from this terrible disease. However, discoveries made in the first half of the 19th century convincingly proved the role of pathogenic microorganisms in the occurrence of infectious diseases.
Mid XIX century was a turning point in the development of microbiology. During this period, it was enriched with new data from physics, chemistry and biology. The most brilliant scientist of the XIX century. the Frenchman Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) was rightfully recognized. He was an amazing person who achieved a lot of hard work. When Paaster was already a world-renowned scientist, he said: “In life, all efforts must be devoted to do the best that is capable of. Let me tell you the secret of my luck. My only strength is my tenacity. ” At the age of 26, L. Pasteur prepared two doctoral dissertations - one in chemistry, the other in physics. But the discoveries made by the scientist in the field of microbiology: for the first time he proved that fermentation is not a chemical process, but a biological one - and this is the result of the vital activity of yeast fungi. L. Pasteur also proved that some microorganisms can live and multiply without oxygen.
To talk about the merits of L. Pasteur, you must write a whole book. For the first time in the history of science, Pasteur developed methods for destroying microorganisms when exposed to high temperatures. This method was the basis of sterilization. In 1879, while working with the causative agent of chicken cholera, Pasteur found that, under certain cultivation conditions, pathogenic microbes lose their virulence. Based on this discovery, he creates vaccines. In 1885, Pasteur proposed rabies vaccinations. The scientific discoveries of L. Pasteur showed the role of microorganisms in the occurrence of infection. He learned to grow bacteria in artificial nutrient media, but did not know how to detect the pathogen in each individual case of infection.
Of great importance for medical microbiology were the discoveries of the German scientist Robert Koch (1843-1910), who enriched microbiology with advanced research methods. He and his students introduced dense nutrient media (potato, gelatin, rolled serum, MPA), aniline dyes, immersion system, microphotography into the practice of laboratory technology. Thanks to the improvement of the technique and methodology of microbiological research, R. Koch finally established the etiology of anthrax, discovered the causative agent of tuberculosis (1882), cholera (1883) and obtained tuberculin from tuberculous microbial bacteria. The scientist investigated in detail wound infections and developed a method for isolating pathogenic bacteria in a pure culture.
In the same year, he conducted research on the study of tobacco mosaic disease D.I. Ivanovsky (1864-1920). He concluded that this disease is caused by an agent that does not grow on nutrient media and passes through filters. This was the first work to prove the viral nature of infectious diseases.
The success of medical microbiology in the field of the etiology of infectious diseases necessitated the study of the mechanisms of the body's protective reactions against infectious agents. The first scientist to show that many cells of the body (white blood cells, spleen, bone marrow, etc.) are capable of capturing and digesting various foreign elements, including bacteria, was I.I. Mechnikov (1845-1916). He called such cells "phagocytes" (from the Greek. Phago - I devour, cytosis - a cell), and the open phenomenon "phagocytosis".
In 1908, for this discovery, the scientist received the Nobel Prize.
Also I.I. Mechnikov worked a lot on life extension issues. He believed that a person should live 100-120 years and that premature old age "is a disease that must be treated." He saw the cause of premature old age in the systematic poisoning of the body with poisons of putrefactive bacteria that inhabit the human colon. Therefore, he advised to consume food containing milk acid bacteria. It is they who create an acidic environment in the intestine, which has an adverse effect on putrefactive microbes. Twice I.I. Mechnikov put himself in mortal danger to verify the correctness of his assumptions. Once he injected the blood of a patient with typhoid into his body to check how infection with this disease occurs. The scientist suffered a severe form of relapsing fever, but was convinced that the infection occurs through the blood. The second time he infected himself with weakened microbes of cholera in order to check their effect on himself.
In 1886, Mechnikov organized the first bacteriological station in the country in Odessa and created a school of microbiologists. But his progressive views in scientific and social life caused discontent of the tsarist government and from 1887 until the end of his life he lived in Paris and worked at the Pasteur Institute.
A great contribution to the development of medical microbiology was made by Russian scientists. Here are their names.
F. A. Lesh (1840-1903) observed in the feces of a patient with amoeba dysentery.
P.F. Borovsky (1863–1932) discovered the causative agent of cutaneous leukomania.
S. N. Vinogradsky (1856-1953) - founder of agricultural microbiology. In 1890, he discovered nitrifying bacteria and studied their significance in the nitrogen cycle in nature.
G. N. Gabrichevsky (1860-1907) - the founder of the Moscow microbiological school. Investigated scarlet fever, diphtheria and other infections. He organized the production of anti-diphtheria serum in Moscow and treated children with diphtheria.
G.N. Minkh (1836–1896) and O. O. Mochutkovsky (1845–1903) in their experiments established the infectiousness of relapsing fever and typhus and came to the conclusion that these diseases are transmitted by blood-sucking insects.
Among the Soviet scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of microbiology, the following names can be mentioned.
P.F. Zdradovsky (1890-1976) - the author of classical works on the study of brucellosis and rickettsiosis, created and put into practice a number of preventive and therapeutic drugs. He dealt with the immunology of malaria and intestinal diseases caused by protozoa.
M. I. Chumakov and A. A. Smorodintsev are scientists of the unprecedented heyday of Soviet microbiology (1950-1970). They and other microbiologists are introducing vaccines from attenuated pathogens of plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and a vaccine against poliomyelitis has been developed.
L. A. Zilber - microbiologist, epidemiologist. He discovered the carrier and causative agent of spring-summer encephalitis. He created a virusogenetic theory of the origin of malignant tumors.
Z.V. Ermolyeva (1898-1975) studied cholera and measures to combat it. For the first time in the USSR, she received penicillin, which during the years of World War II saved thousands of lives.
The further development of microbiology is closely connected with the successes of molecular biology and genetics. These sections take science to a higher and more modern level. Deciphering the basic principles of encoding genetic information in the DNA of bacteria, as well as the universality of the genetic code of bacteria and viruses, made it possible to establish general molecular genetic patterns characteristic of higher organisms.
To date, genetic engineering has introduced new ideas and methods into the production of a wide range of biologically active substances. At the beginning of the XXI century. Microbiology is one of the main areas of medicine, opening new horizons for its various disciplines.
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