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Subject: Delayed hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity of the immediate type. Immunological tolerance

Definition The role of P. Medawar and M. Hasek in the study of tolerance. Methods of inducing tolerance (dose, properties and route of administration of antigen - tolerogen; age factor, duration of stay in the body). The value of lymphocytes, mechanisms of tolerance. The specificity of immunological tolerance. The abolition of natural immunological tolerance. The manifestation of tolerance and its practical use in medicine.
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Subject: Delayed hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity of the immediate type. Immunological tolerance

  1. Microflora of the nasal mucosa with delayed hypersensitivity
    Type IV allergies (delayed or tuberculin) - cell-mediated hypersensitivity. The development mechanism of HRT is as follows: in response to the ingestion of an allergen, sensitized T-lymphocytes are formed (Fig. 21). Upon repeated exposure to hypertension (presented on the macrophage), it combines with sensitized lymphocytes that carry specific
  2. Subject: Allergic reactions of the humoral (immediate) type (types I-III, V)
    Discovery story. The concept of sensitization. Characterization of allergens. Mechanisms for the development of allergic reactions of the humoral type. Signs of a difference between humoral and cellular allergic reactions. Manifestations (anaphylactic shock, serum sickness, local anaphylaxis, etc.). Diagnostic tests for the detection of allergies of the humoral type. Immunological basis for prevention and
  3. Subject: Allergic reactions of the cellular (delayed) type (type IV)
    The concept of cell-mediated immunity. Mechanisms for the development of reactions, the role of mediators. Forms of manifestation: infectious, contact, transplant, antitumor, autoimmune allergy. Identification Methods. Skin and allergic tests, their diagnostic
  4. Basic concepts of allergic reactions of the immediate type
    D. Adelman, A. Saxon Immediate-type allergic reactions are IgE-mediated immune responses that occur with damage to their own tissues. In 1921, Prausnitz and Küstner showed that reagins, factors found in the serum of patients with this form of allergy, are responsible for the development of immediate allergic reactions. Only 45 years later, Ishizaka established that reagins are
  5. Cardiostimulation with hypersensitivity to the carotid sinus and neurocardiogenic syncope
    Hypersensitivity syndrome of the carotid sinus is manifested by syncopal (complete loss of consciousness) or presyncopal conditions as a result of an increased reflex response to stimulation of the carotid sinus. This is a very rare cause of syncope and it is represented by two components of the reflex response: 1) cardioinhibitory - due to an increase in parasympathetic tone, leading to
  6. Microflora of the nasal mucosa with antibody-dependent cytotoxic hypersensitivity
    In type II allergy (cytotoxic or cytolytic) - antibody-dependent cytotoxic hypersensitivity (AThST), the resulting antibodies interact with natural antigens of cell surfaces or with antigens that are secondarily sorbed on the cell (Fig. 19). {foto23} Fig. 19. Scheme of development of antibody-dependent cytotoxic hypersensitivity (type II allergic
  7. Allergic reactions of type IV
    Synonyms of such reactions are delayed-type hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity, delayed-type allergic reactions. Hypersensitivity of the delayed type (PCPT) is a cell-mediated immunological method of increased response to foreign substances, which is accompanied by tissue damage. The main difference between PCHT is
  8. GNT I MEDIATOR (REAGIN) TYPE
    GNT of the mediator (reagin) type is hypersensitivity that develops as a result of sensitization of the body to certain allergens (dust, pollen, drugs, food allergens, haptens, etc.) and is realized through the release of mediators and bioactive substances from mast cell and basophil granules, as well as secretion of leukotrienes, prostaglandins and cytokines
  9. Pathology of the immune system. Hypersensitivity reactions. Autoimmunization and autoimmune diseases. Amyloidosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Scleroderma. Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
    1. Forms of immunity 1. focal 3. specific 2. diffuse 4. non-specific 2. Mechanical protection is provided by 1. skin 4. peripheral nerves 2. blood 5. vascular mucosa 3. vascular endothelium 3. Humoral non-specific components of the immune response 1. sweat 4. mesangiocytes 2. macrophages 5. lacrimal fluid 3. neutrophils 4. To establish compliance: ORGAN APPROPRIATE
  10. Type A Behavior
    A lot of attention was attracted to the type of behavior, or personality style, called the type “A” pattern. For many years, doctors have noticed that victims of heart attacks are often hostile, aggressive, impatient people who have gone too far into their work. In the 50s, two cardiologists compiled a list of behaviors that form a type “A” pattern, which is typical for patients with coronary heart disease
  11. Allergic reactions of type II
    Reactions of this type are called cytotoxic (Fig. 5.3). Allergens in this type are the cells of their tissues. Typically, there is tolerance to their cell antigens. To turn on the immune mechanism, cells must acquire auto-allergenic properties. The reasons for the acquisition of autoallergenic properties by cells are diverse. An important role in this process is played by the action on cells of various chi-
  12. Type “A” behavior correction
    The combination of cognitive and behavioral methods can significantly reduce type “A” behavior (Friedman et al., 1994). The subjects were 1,000 people who had at least one heart attack. The subjects of the treatment group helped reduce the feeling of lack of time by teaching them to wait by the phone (for individuals with type “A” behavior, this situation is especially annoying), and using this
  13. Allergic reactions of type III
    Tissue damage is carried out by immune complexes - a reaction of the Arthus type, immunocomplex type (Fig. 5.4). Allergens (bacterial, viral, fungal, drugs, food substances) in these cases are in soluble form and in large quantities. The resulting complexes are phagocytosed and the body is thereby cleansed of foreign antigens. This is a normal, normal reaction.
  14. Allergic reactions of type I (anaphylactic)
    This type of reaction is also called an immediate-type allergic reaction, a reagin * IgE-mediated type. The authors of the classification designated it as anaphylactic. Anaphylaxis is a state of acquired increased sensitivity of the body to repeated parenteral administration of a foreign protein. Substances that cause anaphylaxis are called anaphylactogens. The term "anaphylaxis"
  15. Mixed type aberrant
    It follows from the foregoing that the main types of aberrance can be explained within the framework of any one mechanism or, in any case, one main mechanism. This generalization is true for most cases of short-cycle aberrantness, especially in a normal heart. However, this is probably generally unsuitable for explaining aberrations observed in the absence of significant changes.
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