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Diseases of an infectious nature.
that arise in hospitals are nosocoial (nosocomial infections)
In infectious hospitals, compliance with the sanitary-anti-epidemic regime provides for the distribution of patients by nosological forms in the boxes, ongoing and final disinfection, and microbiological control.
Etiology: the main causative agents of nosocomial infections are conditionally pathogenic microbes. Causes:
1) objective, independent of medical personnel;
2) subjective. 1. Objective:
a) hospitals, departments that do not meet the requirements; b) the lack of effective methods of treatment of staphylococcal carriage and conditions for hospitalization; c) insufficient number of bacteriological laboratories; d) unreasonably widespread use of antibiotics; e) many antibiotic-resistant microorganisms; e) an increase in persons with reduced immunity.
a) insufficient prophylactically directed activities of medical personnel; b) the lack of a unified epidemiological approach to the study of nosocomial infections; c) lack of proper control on the part of employees of the centers of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance; d) the lack of reliable sterilization of certain types of equipment; e) an increase in the number of contacts between patients; e) lack of full accounting for nosocomial infections; g) low quality of sterilization of medical instruments and disinfection; h) imperfect system of visits by relatives.
Sources of infection:
1) medical personnel, visitors suffering from infectious diseases (flu, diarrhea, pustules);
2) patients with erased forms;
3) patients with clean wounds who are carriers of virulent staphylococcal strains;
4) infants with pneumonia, otitis media, influenza, secreting pathogenic strains of E. coli.
II. Transmission mechanisms: airborne droplets, fecal-no-oral, contact-household, parenteral (hepatitis B, C, delta, HIV) is possible.
1) weakening of the patient;
2) the length of hospital stay (70% of nosocomial infections in patients lying more than 20 days);
3) excessive use of AB, they alter the intestinal biocenosis, reduce immunological resistance;
4) the hospitalization of a large number of elderly people, chronic patients who are a source of nosocomial infections;
5) hospitalization of young children, especially up to 1 year;
6) large crowding of patients in a hospital.
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Diseases of an infectious nature.
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