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Diseases of the biliary tract and gallbladder

Diseases of the biliary system are very common. Patients with this pathology in the general population are on average 2, and among women - almost 10 times more than patients with peptic ulcer disease.

Among the numerous diseases of the biliary tract, it is advisable to single out mainly functional disorders (dyskinesias), inflammatory (cholecystitis), metabolic (cholelithiasis), parasitic and tumor diseases. It is possible that the first three of these conditions are separate links or phases of the same pathological process: first, gallbladder motility disorders occur, which is manifested by hypo- or hypermotor dyskinesias, then chronic stoneless cholecystitis develops, which eventually transforms into calculous.

Given the similar evolution of the above diseases, this lecture will begin with a review of the most common pathology of the biliary system - biliary dyskinesia.

At the beginning of this century, surgeons drew attention to the fact that in some patients complaining of biliary colic attacks, during surgery, stones and organic changes in the gallbladder and ducts could not be found.
Even then, the German clinician G. Bergman first suggested that such clinical manifestations may be the result of dysfunction of the neuromuscular apparatus of the gallbladder and ducts, without serious organic changes.

Currently, the point of view linking biliary dyskinesia with functional changes remains relevant and the modern definition of these conditions is as follows: Dyskinesia of the biliary tract is an inconsistent, non-timely, insufficient or excessive reduction of the gallbladder , ducts and sphincters.

This pathology occurs mainly at a young age (among adolescents with biliary tract diseases, it is diagnosed in 58%, and in patients older than 60 years of age - in 27%) and more often in women, asthenic constitution, and low nutrition.
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Diseases of the biliary tract and gallbladder

  1. Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract in children
    Questions for repetition: 1. Duodenal sounding and its assessment. 2. The main pain points in the disease of the gallbladder and biliary tract. Test questions: 1. Biliary dyskinesia. Concept. Etiopathogenesis. Classification. 2. Clinical and diagnostic criteria for biliary dyskinesia: 2.1. hypermotor type 2.2. hypomotor type 3. Treatment of dyskinesia
  2. LESSON 6 TOPIC. Diseases of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the pathological manifestations of diseases and syndromes of the hepato-cholecystic-pancreatic zone is necessary for the successful assimilation of this human suffering in clinical departments. In the practical work of the doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional cases and liver biopsies. The general purpose of the lesson. Learn by morphological characteristics
  3. Diseases of the liver and gall bladder
    With the development of possibilities for diagnosing diseases of internal organs, it was found that liver disease (hepatopathy) is much more common than previously thought, and that many vague signs of disease are based on hepatosis. Due to the importance and variety of functions, the liver is endowed with a natural ability for high regeneration. Therefore arising under the influence of different
  4. Diseases of the liver and biliary system. Hepatitis. Cirrhosis of the liver. Liver cancer. Cholelithiasis.
    1. A 40-year-old woman complains of weakness, jaundice. A history of 2 months. before the disease - blood transfusion. An examination revealed an increase in the liver, an increase in the level of hepatic transaminases. Conclusion 1. liver steatosis 3. obstructive jaundice 2. Botkin’s disease 4. acute viral hepatitis 2. Viral hepatitis C is characterized by 1. high frequency of chronicity 2. parenteral transmission 3.
    This chapter continues the presentation of the pathology of the digestive system. According to traditions, a number of diseases of the liver and biliary tract, despite their infectious etiology, are considered not in chapter 14, devoted to infections, but here. The same applies to diabetes mellitus, a description of which, for reasons of expediency, is included in this
  6. Diseases of the liver and biliary tract
    The main syndromes of liver and biliary tract diseases. These include: jaundice, liver failure, portal hypertension, cholestasis, hepatorenal, hepatoencephalic syndromes, hepatic coma, hepatic colic, hepatogenic photosensitization syndrome. Jaundice (icterus) is a clinical and laboratory syndrome characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice, general weakness and
  7. Diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas
  8. Gall bladder and bile ducts
    As in many other organs and tissues, in the human liver, secretory processes are subordinated to a certain rhythm. Bile secretion prevails during the day, glycogen production prevails at night. The effect of a nightly decrease in the secretion of bile, which has a physiological basis, is enhanced even more with biliary dyskinesia (a violation of the coordinated work of the smooth muscles of the ducts and gallbladder, which has
  9. Biliary Dyskinesia
    Biliary dyskinesia is a functional violation of the motility of the gallbladder and biliary tract, manifested by pain in the right hypochondrium, leading to a violation of the outflow of bile into the duodenum. Dyskinesias is divided into primary and secondary. Primary dyskinesias cause a change in neurohumoral mechanisms, develop during intoxication against the background of allergic diseases,
  10. Liver, gall bladder and bile ducts
    The liver of the newborn is relatively large, especially its left lobe, to which the spleen is adjacent. Cases of agenesis of the liver are rare, they are more often found to be underdeveloped. On the back or on the lower surface of the liver, you can sometimes see congenital notches, often located in the sagittal direction. If these depressions are significant, the liver is divided into additional lobes.
  11. Violation of contractility of the biliary tract (dyskinesia of the GWP)
    Biliary dyskinesia is a disorder of the tone of the gallbladder and ducts, which are manifested by a violation of the outflow of bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. In the development of biliary dyskinesia, the leading role is played by disorders of the nervous system, in particular its autonomic section. This is accompanied by discoordination of gallbladder muscle contraction and
  12. Gall bladder (problems)
    The gall bladder is a hollow organ that contains bile coming from the liver and prevents it from flowing into the intestine in between meals. During the digestion of food, the gallbladder opens and expels bile through the bile duct into the duodenum. Bile is necessary so that the intestines can absorb fats from food. Most common problem related
  13. Features of the gallbladder
    The gall bladder is located under the right lobe of the liver and has a fusiform shape, its length reaches 3 cm. It acquires a typical pear-shaped form by 7 months, by 2 years reaches the edge of the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is the accumulation and secretion of hepatic bile. The bile of a child is different in composition from the bile of an adult. It has few bile acids, cholesterol, salts, a lot
  14. Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder)
    Causes: As a rule, the presence of stones in the gallbladder or its ducts. Pathological thickening of bile as a result of a viral infection, errors in diet, abnormal structure of the gallbladder, overweight, prolonged stressful situation, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Symptoms Pain in the upper right abdomen, fever, fat intolerance, may be temporary
  15. Gallstones
    Causes Impaired metabolism in the liver (bile is oversaturated with cholesterol). Overweight women get sick more often. One of the reasons is a sedentary lifestyle combined with dietary errors (excess fats, fried, spicy and smoked foods, alcohol). In complex cases, cancer of the biliary tract and gall bladder can occur. Symptoms Soreness on palpation in the right
  16. Gall bladder cancer
    Epidemiology. Gallbladder cancer accounts for 2-8% of all malignant tumors and in frequency it takes 5-6 place among digestive tumors. Ill men relate to women in a ratio of 1:14. 90% of patients older than 60 years. For 100 planned cholecystectomies for chronic calculous cholecystitis, there is a histological finding of 3 cases of cancer in situ of the gallbladder.
  17. Violation of the liver and biliary tract
    The liver plays a leading role in the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, hormones, vitamins, minerals, as well as many exogenous compounds. In the liver, synthesis of albumin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and some other factors of blood clotting occurs, heparin, a- (3- and (partially) uglobulins, a number of enzymes are produced. Glycogen synthesis, its deposition and breakdown are carried out in the liver
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