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Bronchiectatic disease is an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by a chronic suppurative process in irreversibly changed (enlarged, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly in the lower parts of the lungs.
ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS. Bronchiectasis are congenital in 6% of cases, as a malformation of the fetus, a consequence of a violation of the branching order of the bronchus. The transformation of a bronchial tree abnormality into a disease usually occurs in early childhood due to acute pneumonia. In elderly patients, bronchiectasis often occurs against a background of metatuberculosis changes.
Any lung disease leading to ectasia of the bronchi passes through the stage of chronic bronchitis.
A decisive role in the occurrence of bronchiectasis is given to the destruction of the wall of the bronchi. Bronchiectasis is considered as a consequence of panbronchitis with involvement of peribronchial tissue in the process, especially when chronic inflammation spreads to the distal bronchi with impaired patency. A viral infection of the respiratory tract, more often in childhood, can cause bronchiolitis with secondary bacterial inflammation.
The development of bronchiectasis is favored by a combination of inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles with bronchospasm, leading to an increase in intrabronchial pressure.
In the occurrence of bronchiectasis, atelectasis, leading to pulmonary sclerosis, the progression of the inflammatory process in the bronchus up to ulceration and destruction of the muscular-elastic layer and cartilage, play an important role.
The occurrence and course of bronchiectasis is associated with a disorder of hemodynamics and lymphodynamics of the bronchopulmonary system.
The formation of bronchiectasis can be observed with a lung abscess in connection with gross destructive changes in the bronchi.
Bronchiectasis can occur as a result of radiation exposure to the lung in connection with radiation therapy for cancer.
In the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis, an important place is given to • immunological mechanisms. In bronchiectasis, a significant increase in IgA, IgM, and IgG of immunoglobulins is noted. In the occurrence of the disease, a hereditary predisposition is important, which, perhaps, is based on a deficiency of surfactant and (or) QI-antitrispin
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- Bronchiectatic disease
BRONCHEECTATIC DISEASE is an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by a chronic suppurative process in irreversibly altered (dilated, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly of the lower parts of the lungs. The main morphological substrate of the pathological process are primary bronchiectasis (bronchiectasis), which
- BRONCHEECTATIC DISEASE
- an acquired disease characterized by chronic suppurative process (purulent endobronchitis) in irreversibly altered (enlarged, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly lower parts of the lungs. The main clinical manifestations Patients complain of cough with sputum after pneumonia, measles, whooping cough or severe influenza in childhood
- Diseases of the female genital organs and mammary glands. Cervical Diseases. UTERINE BODY DISEASES. Diseases of the fallopian tubes. DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. BREAST DISEASES
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1. The earliest changes in neurons during blood flow arrest 1. cytolysis 4. microvacuolization 2. tigrolysis 5. wrinkling of neurons 3. hyperchromatosis 2. The most common causes of cerebral infarction 1. stenotic atherosclerosis 2. thromboembolism 3. true polycythemia 4. thrombosis 5. embolism fatty with a fracture of the tubular bones 3. Cerebral edema of the cytotoxic type occurs at 1.
- HEART DISEASES. CORONARY HEART DISEASE. HYPERTENSIVE HEART DISEASE. Myocardial hypertrophy. ACUTE AND CHRONIC PULMONARY HEART
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- Independent work. Occupational diseases - vibration disease, 1997
Medical history. Passport part. Anamnesis of the present disease. Anamnesis of life. Objective research. Preliminary diagnosis. Laboratory research data. Final
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- DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. STOMACH DISEASES
Diseases of the digestive system in the structure of morbidity and mortality are in third place after diseases of the organs of the cardiovascular system and tumors. In the domestic literature, the classification of these diseases is built according to the classical ideas about the division of the digestive system into the anterior, posterior and middle sections. The anterior digestive system includes
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- Border disease (Border disease) sheep
Border disease (Border disease) of sheep is a chronic contagious disease of sheep fruit, characterized by a change in the hair cover of embryos and newborn lambs, the presence of discolored or pigmented hair bundles, muscle tremor, and pathology of myelogenesis. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease belongs to the RNA genomic viruses belonging to the family
- DIGESTIVE DISEASES. INTESTINAL DISEASES
Bowel diseases are extremely diverse, they relate to selective lesions of the small or large intestines, but are often accompanied by a combined lesion of all parts of the intestine. In the structure of diseases and mortality from them, cardiovascular invariably occupy the first place, and of them atherosclerosis and hypertension. It has long been identified as an independent nosological form