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Bronchiectatic disease is an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by a chronic suppurative process in irreversibly changed (enlarged, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly in the lower parts of the lungs.
ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS. Bronchiectasis are congenital in 6% of cases, as a fetal malformation, a consequence of a violation of the branching order of the bronchus. The transformation of a bronchial tree abnormality into a disease usually occurs in early childhood due to acute pneumonia. In elderly patients, bronchiectasis often occurs against a background of metatuberculosis changes.
Any lung disease leading to ectasia of the bronchi passes through the stage of chronic bronchitis.
A decisive role in the occurrence of bronchiectasis is given to the destruction of the wall of the bronchi. Bronchiectasis is considered as a consequence of panbronchitis with involvement of peribronchial tissue in the process, especially when chronic inflammation spreads to the distal bronchi with impaired patency. A viral infection of the respiratory tract, more often in childhood, can cause bronchiolitis with secondary bacterial inflammation.
The development of bronchiectasis is favored by a combination of inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles with bronchospasm, leading to an increase in intrabronchial pressure.
In the occurrence of bronchiectasis, atelectasis, leading to pulmonary sclerosis, the progression of the inflammatory process in the bronchus up to ulceration and destruction of the muscular-elastic layer and cartilage, play an important role.
The occurrence and course of bronchiectasis is associated with a disorder of hemodynamics and lymphodynamics of the bronchopulmonary system.
The formation of bronchiectasis can be observed with a lung abscess in connection with gross destructive changes in the bronchi.
Bronchiectasis can occur as a result of radiation exposure to the lung in connection with radiation therapy for cancer.
In the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis, an important place is given to • immunological mechanisms. In bronchiectasis, a significant increase in IgA, IgM, and IgG of immunoglobulins is noted. In the occurrence of the disease, a hereditary predisposition is important, which, perhaps, is based on a deficiency of surfactant and (or) QI-antitrispin
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BRONCHEECTATIC DISEASE - an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by a chronic suppurative process in irreversibly altered (dilated, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly of the lower parts of the lungs. The main morphological substrate of the pathological process are primary bronchiectasis (bronchiectasis), which
- BRONCHEECTATIC DISEASE
- an acquired disease characterized by chronic suppurative process (purulent endobronchitis) in irreversibly altered (dilated, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly of the lower parts of the lungs. The main clinical manifestations Patients complain of cough with sputum after pneumonia, measles, whooping cough or severe influenza in childhood
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