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The pancreas consists of exocrine and endocrine parts. The endocrine portion is represented by groups of epithelial cells (islets of Langerhans), separated from the exocrine portion of the gland by thin connective tissue layers. Most of the islets are concentrated in the area of ​​the tail of the pancreas. The dimensions of the pancreatic islets vary from 0.1 to 0.3 mm, and their total mass does not exceed 1/100 of the mass of the pancreas.

Pancreatic islets have two main types of glandular cells. Cells that synthesize insulin are called beta (or?) - cells; cells producing glucagon - alpha (or?) - cells.

Insulin is a protein hormone with a molecular weight of about 6000 Da. It is formed from proinsulin under the influence of proteases. The conversion of proinsulin to the active hormone insulin occurs in beta cells. Regulation of insulin secretion is carried out by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, as well as under the influence of a number of polypeptides that are produced in the gastrointestinal tract.

Glucagon is a polypeptide consisting of a single chain with a molecular weight of about 3,500 Da. It can also be produced in the intestine as enteroglucagon.

Glucagon secretion is regulated by glucose receptors in the hypothalamus, which determine the decrease in blood glucose levels.
Growth hormone, somatostatin, enteroglucagon, and the sympathetic nervous system are included in this chain of interactions.

Islet cell hormones have a significant effect on metabolic processes. Insulin is a broad spectrum anabolic hormone. Its role is to increase the synthesis of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It stimulates glucose metabolism, increases the penetration of myocardial and skeletal muscle cells for glucose, which contributes to a greater flow of glucose into the cell. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels, stimulates glycogen synthesis in the liver, and affects fat metabolism.

The main effect of glucagon is associated with increased metabolic processes in the liver, the splitting of glycogen to glucose and its release into the blood stream. Glucagon is a synergist of adrenaline. When blood glucose levels deviate from the norm, hypo- or hyperglycemia is observed. With a lack of insulin or a change in its activity, the content of glucose in the blood rises sharply, which can lead to the appearance of diabetes with the corresponding clinical symptoms. High levels of glucagon in the blood cause the development of hypoglycemic states.
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  1. Diseases of the endocrine glands. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. Diseases of the thyroid gland. Thyroid tumors
    1. Etiological factors of diabetes mellitus 1. intoxication 2. tobacco smoking 3. helminth infections 4. viral infections 5. genetic predisposition 2. Pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis development 1. duct dyskinesia 4. fungi poisoning 2. biliary reflux 5. alcohol poisoning 3. gastroduodenal reflux 6. overeating 3. Establish compliance by functional
  2. Anatomy of the endocrine pancreas
    The endocrine portion of the pancreas is made up of small islets of cells known as the islets of Langerhans. They are separated from the acini of the exocrine gland by layers of connective tissue. These islets are surrounded and permeated with a rich capillary network that delivers blood from the islets to acinar cells. The bringing arteriole enters the islet, forms in it a capillary glomerulus,
  3. Tumors of the endocrine pancreas.
    Tumors of the islets of Langerhans can develop de novo or against the background of previous changes in the pancreas. Such background processes include, for example, necidioblastosis (hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the insular apparatus, often with an increase in the function of B cells). Among the tumors of the endocrine parenchyma of the pancreas are most common insulin (B-cell tumor) and gastrinoma
  4. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas.
    The endocrine portion of the pancreas is represented by the islets of Langerhans, the main area of ​​which is occupied by insulin-producing B cells. Insulin has a predominantly anabolic effect, stimulating the uptake and uptake of glucose by cells, the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, and proteins in the muscle tissue; lipogenesis. In addition to insulinocytes, the islets of Langerhans contain cells secreting glucagon,
    The testicle (testicle) in men and the ovaries in women, in addition to germ cells, produce and release into the blood sex hormones, under the influence of which the formation of secondary sex characteristics occurs. Endocrine function in the testicle has an interstitium, which is represented by glandular cells - interstitial testicular endocrinocytes, or Leydig cells, which are located in loose connective
  6. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas: diabetes mellitus, tumors
    Endocrine diseases of the pancreas: diabetes,
    The pancreas is a mixed digestive gland (see fig. 78). In an adult, its length is 14–18 cm, width 3–9 cm, thickness 2–3 cm, weight 70–80 g. In the pancreas, the head, body and tail are isolated. The head is located at the level of the I — HI lumbar vertebrae and is adjacent to the duodenal loop. The back surface of the head lies on the bottom hollow
  8. Pancreatic Diseases
    The pancreas is located between the sheets of the mesentery of the duodenum and stomach, has a right and left lobe. Her excretory ducts open into the duodenum. The mass of the gland is 10-100 g, which corresponds to 0.13-0.36% of the body weight of the dog. The endocrine portion of the gland is only 3% and is formed by cells of the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon,
  9. Pancreatic Tumors
    Epidemiology. Malignant and benign hormone-active tumors of the islet apparatus of the pancreas are quite rare - one observation for 900 autopsies. Among them, the share of malignant tumors accounts for 10% of cases. Women suffer 2 times more often than men. Most often found at the age of 35 - 55 years. Etiology. Not enough studied. At the base
  10. Pancreas. Development, structure and function
    The pancreas consists of two different organs - exocrine, participating in digestion, and endocrine, participating in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. (In the exocrine type of secretion, the products of the gland are secreted to the surface of the epithelium, in this case, the epithelium of the digestive tract; in the case of the endocrine type, the secret is secreted into the bloodstream and acts on target cells that are remote from
  11. Pancreatic Features
    The pancreas is small. In a newborn, its length is 5-6 cm, and by 10 years of life, it is tripled. The pancreas is located deep in the abdominal cavity at the level of the X thoracic vertebra, at an older age it is at the level of the I lumbar vertebra. Its intensive growth occurs up to 14 years. The size of the pancreas in children in the first year of life
  12. Malformations of the pancreas
    Hypoplasia (ICD-10: Q45.0), ectopia (ICD-10: Q45.8) of the pancreas are accompanied by impaired exocrine function in combination with or without endocrine disorders. Early adherence to symptoms of a fat-soluble vitamin deficiency is characteristic. Diagnosis is based on abdominal ultrasound, determining the activity of elastase in the feces, data from a coprological study and a stool lipidogram.
  13. Pancreas
    The pancreas as an organ of internal secretion produces only one hormone - insulin. It regulates the level of glucose in the blood and its utilization by the cells. Insufficient production of insulin as a result of the death of insulin-producing pancreatic cells in children is known in the clinic as diabetes mellitus of the first (juvenile) type. Symptoms of a newly emerged and progressive adolescent
  14. Pathology of the pancreas
    In addition to diabetes, the pathology of the pancreas should include endocrine tumors, known as insulomas. Most common is p-cell insuloma, which is characterized by hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia. Less common is G-cell insuloma, which produces gastrin and is manifested by Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, the main manifestation of which is the appearance of multiple ulcers
  15. Pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma
    Serous and mucous cystoadenomas are true pancreatic cysts with multiple small (serous) or large (mucous) cysts, in the lining of which adenocarcinoma cells grow. Cysts do not communicate with the pancreatic duct and do not contain amylase, the serum level of which is usually normal. Women get sick more often than men. Angiography reveals
  16. Anatomical structure and location of the pancreas
    The adult pancreas has a length of about 15 cm, a mass of 90 g and is located behind the parietal peritoneum on the posterior abdominal wall. The gland is oriented obliquely upward from the head to the tail, while the head fits snugly to the C-shaped loop of the duodenum, and the tail is projected onto the gate of the spleen (Fig. 8-4). The front surface of the pancreas is covered with parietal
  17. Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
    Pancreatitis is a polyetiological disease of the pancreas, resulting from the self-destruction of tissue by its lipolytic and activated proteolytic enzymes. Inflammatory changes in the pancreas occur in response to necrosis of its tissue. There are acute and chronic pancreatitis, in addition, children are often diagnosed with reactive pancreatitis, which is
  18. Anatomy of the exocrine pancreas
    When describing the pancreatic ducts, the terms “distal” and “proximal” are usually used to accurately characterize their localization. According to the majority of clinicians, when characterizing the biliary and pancreatic ducts, the distal is understood as the most distant from the source of secretion, and the proximal one is closest to the source of secretion. Therefore proximal
  19. Pancreas dysfunction
    In the pancreas produces a large number of different enzymes necessary for the digestion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. Regulation of the exocrine activity of the pancreas is characterized by cyclical phases. In the inter-digestive period, the level of secretion of pancreatic enzymes, as well as water and electrolytes is 1-2% of the maximum possible production.
  20. Pancreas cancer
    Treats the most aggressive malignant tumors, differing in high resistance to special methods of treatment. Epidemiology. Mortality from pancreatic cancer is 4-9 cases per 100 000 population. In the structure of the incidence of malignant tumors, pancreatic cancer takes 4-5 place and is 9.3 per 100 000. Ratio of sick men and women
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