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CRF is a pathological condition of the body, characterized by permanent progressive renal dysfunction.


1) Chronic glomerulonephritis.

2) Chronic pyelonephritis (it is believed that the main reason).

3) Polycystic kidney disease.

4) Malignant hypertension with outcome in nephrosclerosis.

5) Amyloidosis of the kidneys.

6) A variety of urological pathology (urolithiasis, etc.).

7) Diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

8) Adenoma and prostate cancer (consequence of prostate). CKD is a common cause of disability and death in a young age.


1. Accumulation of nitrogenous slags:

a) urea> 40 mg% (8 mmol / l), but blood nitrogen can be both endogenous and exogenous - from food, therefore it is better to determine the kidney function by creatinine.

b) Creatitin 1.0-1.2 mg% is excreted by filtration, is not reabsorbed, therefore, filtration is judged by the level of creatitin.

c) uric acid (but it may increase with gout).

Water - electrolyte balance disturbance:

a) excess sodium - cut -> hyponatremia:

b) excess potassium - cutoff -> hypokalemia (but in the terminal stage of chronic kidney disease with severe oliguria, there may be hyperkalemia). The rate of 3.6 - 5.0 mmol / l.

c) a change in the excretion of calcium and phosphorus: calcium is washed out of the bones - osteoporosis, osteomalacia; hyperphosphatemia; the blood Ca / P ratio is changing - there may be a picture of secondary parathyroidism.

d) magnesium retention;

e) changes in water metabolism: first dehydration due to polyuria, then overhydration - edema, left ventricular heart failure.

3. Change in acid-base balance: acidosis: vomiting joins in the terminal stage, diarrhea - loss of sodium and chlorides -> hypochloremic alkalosis occurs.
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