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CRF is a pathological condition of the body, characterized by a constant progressive impaired renal function.


1) Chronic glomerulonephritis.

2) Chronic pyelonephritis (there is an opinion that the main reason).

3) Polycystic kidney disease.

4) Malignant hypertension with outcome in nephrosclerosis.

5) Amyloidosis of the kidneys.

6) A variety of urological pathology (urolithiasis, etc.).

7) Diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

8) Adenoma and prostate cancer (a consequence of urostasis). CRF is a common cause of disability and death at a young age.


1. The accumulation of nitrogenous slag:

a) urea> 40 mg% (8 mmol / L), but blood nitrogen can be either endogenous or exogenous - from food, therefore it is better to determine renal function by creatinine.

b) creatinine 1.0-1.2 mg% - excreted by filtration, not reabsorbed, therefore, filtration is judged by the level of creatinine.

c) uric acid (but it can increase with gout).

Violation of the water - electrolyte balance:

a) excess sodium - cut -> hyponatremia:

b) excess potassium - urez -> hypokalemia (but in the terminal stage of chronic renal failure with severe oliguria there may be hyperkalemia). The norm of 3.6 - 5.0 mmol / l.

c) a change in the excretion of calcium and phosphorus: calcium is washed out of the bones - osteoporosis, osteomalacia; hyperphosphatemia; blood Ca / P ratio changes - there may be a picture of secondary parathyroidism.

d) retention of magnesium;

e) water metabolism changes: first dehydration due to polyuria, then hyperhydration - edema, left ventricular heart failure.

3. Change in acid-base balance: acidosis: in the terminal stage, vomiting joins, diarrhea - loss of sodium and chlorides -> hypochloremic alkalosis occurs.
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