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CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE

- a syndrome that develops as a result of a gradual decrease in the number and function of the remaining nephrons, leading to impaired renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, tubular re-absorption and secretion, as well as the concentration ability of the kidneys and characterized by azotemia, impaired water and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance .



The main clinical manifestations

Usually, the greater the degree of renal failure, the more pronounced its clinical manifestations. In some cases, symptoms of damage to the cardiovascular system prevail, in others - nervous, digestive and hematopoietic. When diseases progressed, patients show signs of damage to the nervous system: weakness, drowsiness, apathy, fatigue. Gastroenterological syndrome manifests itself in the form of nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. Further, in patients, due to the delay of uremic toxins, itching of the skin, subcutaneous hemorrhages, nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding appear; joint pains are noted. Arterial hypertension leads to the development of severe retinopathy, decreased vision.



Classification

There are two stages of chronic renal failure:

I - conservative (glomerular filtration value 40 ml / min);

II - terminal (filtration of about 15 ml / min).



Diagnostic criteria

Clinical - the appearance of drowsiness, apathy, nausea, vomiting, itching of the skin, nose and stomach bleeding, joint pain, blurred vision, progression of hypertension.

Laboratory - during the Zimnitsky test, monotonous urine output of low relative density is noted, the level of creatinemia, a decrease in glomerular filtration, and hyperkalemia are increased.



Diagnosis Examples

one.
Idiopathic (primary) amyloidosis, terminal stage.

2. Chronic renal failure stage II with severe neurological, anemic-hemorrhagic and gastroenterological syndrome.

3. Chronic mixed mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive course, exacerbation phase. Chronic renal failure stage II with anemic-hemorrhagic and gastroenterological syndrome.



List of recommended literature: 1. Clinical Nephrology / Ed. E.I. Tareeva. M .: Medicine, 1983. 464 p. 2. Practical nephrology / Ed. By A. P. Peleschuk K.: Health'ya, 1983. 344 p. 3. Tareez E I. Fundamentals of Nephrology M .: Medicine, 1972. T. 1, 2
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CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE

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  8. Chronic renal failure
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