about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>


- a syndrome that develops as a result of a gradual decrease in the number and function of the remaining nephrons, leading to impaired renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, tubular re-absorption and secretion, as well as the concentration ability of the kidneys and characterized by azotemia, impaired water and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance .

The main clinical manifestations

Usually, the greater the degree of renal failure, the more pronounced its clinical manifestations. In some cases, symptoms of damage to the cardiovascular system prevail, in others - nervous, digestive and hematopoietic. When diseases progressed, patients show signs of damage to the nervous system: weakness, drowsiness, apathy, fatigue. Gastroenterological syndrome manifests itself in the form of nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. Further, in patients, due to the delay of uremic toxins, itching of the skin, subcutaneous hemorrhages, nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding appear; joint pains are noted. Arterial hypertension leads to the development of severe retinopathy, decreased vision.


There are two stages of chronic renal failure:

I - conservative (glomerular filtration value 40 ml / min);

II - terminal (filtration of about 15 ml / min).

Diagnostic criteria

Clinical - the appearance of drowsiness, apathy, nausea, vomiting, itching of the skin, nose and stomach bleeding, joint pain, blurred vision, progression of hypertension.

Laboratory - during the Zimnitsky test, monotonous urine output of low relative density is noted, the level of creatinemia, a decrease in glomerular filtration, and hyperkalemia are increased.

Diagnosis Examples

Idiopathic (primary) amyloidosis, terminal stage.

2. Chronic renal failure stage II with severe neurological, anemic-hemorrhagic and gastroenterological syndrome.

3. Chronic mixed mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive course, exacerbation phase. Chronic renal failure stage II with anemic-hemorrhagic and gastroenterological syndrome.

List of recommended literature: 1. Clinical Nephrology / Ed. E.I. Tareeva. M .: Medicine, 1983. 464 p. 2. Practical nephrology / Ed. By A. P. Peleschuk K.: Health'ya, 1983. 344 p. 3. Tareez E I. Fundamentals of Nephrology M .: Medicine, 1972. T. 1, 2
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =


  1. Chronic glomerulonephritis in children. Acute and chronic renal failure
    Questions for repetition: 1. Samples used to study the functional state of the kidneys. Test questions: 1. Definition, etiopathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis. 2. Classification of chronic glomerulonephritis. 3. The clinical picture and laboratory diagnosis of various forms of chronic glomerulonephritis. 4. Differential diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis. 5. A kidney biopsy,
  2. Chronic renal failure
    (tab. 21) Table 21. Stages of chronic renal failure (with some modification according to Wetzels) - normal; I lowering; f increase Surgical interventions for latent and overt chronic kidney diseases often worsen renal function up to a detailed picture of renal failure. It has been repeatedly emphasized that patients suffering from chronic kidney diseases with
  3. Chronic renal failure
    DEFINITION of CRF is a gradually developing irreversible renal failure caused by slowly increasing changes in the kidneys with anomalies of their development, metabolic diseases, chronic inflammation, etc. This is a nonspecific syndrome, which is an irreversible violation of homeostatic functions of the kidneys associated with severe progressive disease. The term "uremia" is equated
  4. Chronic renal failure (CRF)
    Chronic renal failure gradually develops as a result of the progressive irreversible loss of a functioning parenchyma. It is diagnosed in children with diseases of the urinary system while maintaining them for 3-6 months and a decrease in glomerular filtration of less than 20 ml / min, an increase in the level of serum creatinine, urea. Over 50 Diseases Are Damaged
  5. Chronic renal failure
    The prognosis of nephropathies of various genesis is determined by the degree of renal function impairment and the possibility of their recovery. The detection of early signs of chronic renal failure (CRF) in children is necessary not only for timely conservative therapy, but also for the timely use of extracorporeal treatment methods, which include peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis,
  6. Chronic renal failure
    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a syndrome that develops as a result of a gradual decrease in renal function due to progressive nephron death. CRF is in most cases an irreversible process. The term "uremia" is usually used to refer to the final stage of chronic renal failure, when a complex of biochemical and pathophysiological disorders is determined and clinical
  7. Chronic renal failure
    CHRONIC KIDNEY INSUFFICIENCY (CRF) is an SNC developing as a result of a decrease in the number and change in the function of the remaining nephrons, which leads to impaired excretory and secretory functions of the kidneys, which can no longer support the normal internal environment of the body. Sometimes, a decrease in the rate of clotting station (GFR) is asymptomatic for a long time and the patient
  8. Chronic renal failure
    • Nephrosclerosis is a morphological substrate - wrinkling of the kidneys in the outcome of chronic diseases with bilateral damage to the kidneys. • In the final of chronic renal failure, uremia develops, which is characterized by: ° hyperazotemia; ° metabolic acidosis (due to the accumulation of sulfates, phosphates and organic acids); ° electrolyte imbalance (hyperkalemia,
    Chronic renal failure (CRF), a very common pathology in older cats. This is a non-specific diagnosis, which is understood as a gradually manifesting progressive incurable clinical syndrome, due to the limited ability of the kidneys to excrete certain substances in the urine, regulate the acid-base balance and perform renal endocrine functions.
    CRF develops as a result of a significant decrease in the number of actively functioning nephrons, which leads to impaired excretory and incretory kidney function. With chronic renal failure, the maintenance of homeostasis of the internal environment is disrupted, which is manifested by a change in all metabolic processes: water-electrolyte, protein, carbohydrate and lipid. As a result, pathological processes develop in
  11. Nutrition for chronic renal failure
    Various long-term kidney diseases that disrupt their function can lead to chronic renal failure. If the work of the kidneys is weakened, they poorly remove substances from the body that are formed as a result of protein metabolism. These substances accumulate in the blood and have a toxic effect on the body. To reduce their concentration in the blood, it is necessary sharply
    CRF is a pathological condition of the body, characterized by a constant progressive impaired renal function. Etiology 1) Chronic glomerulonephritis. 2) Chronic pyelonephritis (there is an opinion that the main reason). 3) Polycystic kidney disease. 4) Malignant hypertension with outcome in nephrosclerosis. 5) Amyloidosis of the kidneys. 6) A variety of urological pathology
    Barry M. Brenner, J. Michael Lazarus (Barry M. Brenner, J. Michael Lazarus) In contrast to the ability of the kidneys to restore their function after suffering various types of acute renal failure, discussed in the previous chapter, damage of a more persistent nature is often irreversible. The function of the organ is not restored, moreover, progressive
  14. Chronic renal failure
    - edematous cm: edema of varying severity, rapid weight gain, oliguria, anuria, pallor of the skin - metabolic disorders: acidosis, azotemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia - hypertensive cm expressed - urinary cm: impaired renal function - concentration, filtration, nitrogen separation, electrolyte, regulation of water-electrolyte
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019