about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>


(A.I. Borokhov, N.R. Paleev, 1990)

1. By origin:

1.1. Primary (congenital cysts) bronchiectasis.

1.1.1. Single (solitary).

1.1.2. Multiple. l..l-Z. Cystic lung.

1.2. Secondary (acquired) bronchiectasis.

2. In the form of bronchial enlargement:

2.1. Cylindrical.

2.2. Saccular.

2.3. Spindle-shaped.

2.4. Mixed.

3. The severity of the course (clinical forms):

3.1 Lightweight.

3.2. Pronounced form.

3.3. Severe form.

3.4. Complicated form.

4. Dry bronchiectasis.

5. By prevalence:

5.1. Unilateral bronchiectasis (indicating the exact localization of the process by segments).

5.2. Bilateral bronchiectasis.

6. According to the phases of the disease:

6.1. Aggravation.

6.2. Remission.

7. The presence of complications:

1) bleeding;

2) pulmonary heart;

3) amyloidosis;

4) pulmonary heart failure.


1. Bronchiectatic disease in the acute stage with a primary lesion of the right lung by saccular bronchiectasis, expressed form.

2. Bronchiectatic disease with damage to the left lung with dry bronchiectasis, complicated by bronchiectasis.

CLINIC. The disease is recognized at the age of 5 to 25 years, men are sick more often.

The most characteristic complaint of patients is a cough with sputum in large quantities, mainly in the morning, purulent or mucopurulent. During an exacerbation, the amount of sputum released can reach a liter or more with an unpleasant putrefactive odor. Periodically, many patients have hemoptysis and streaks of blood in the sputum. Shortness of breath occurs with moderate physical exertion. Pain in the chest is dull. Patients complain of lethargy, irritability, decreased performance. During the period of exacerbation, the temperature rises to subfebrile digits mainly in the evening.

During an external examination of patients with bronchiectasis, there is a certain delay in the development and growth of children and adolescents, delayed sexual development of secondary sexual characteristics, amenorrhea in girls. With total lung damage in the patient, a decrease in the volume of one half of the chest and a restriction of respiratory excursions are noted. In patients with bronchiectasis with a widespread lesion, an earthy color of the skin is observed, the fingers take the form of “drum sticks” and the nails are deformed in the form of “watch glasses”.

Data percussion of the chest with bronchiectasis is not very characteristic.

During auscultation over the affected, often posterior lower lung sections, sonorous large and medium bubbling rales are heard. After coughing up sputum, the number of wheezing decreases, and sometimes they completely disappear. In the area of ​​the altered areas, hard or bronchial breathing is heard with atelectatic bronchiectasis.

DIAGNOSTICS. The severity of x-ray manifestations in bronchiectasis depends on the prevalence of bronchiectasis, the degree of development of changes in the bronchi and surrounding tissue.

On conventional radiographs and tomograms, bronchiectasis is not always possible to detect.
Indirect signs of bronchiectasis:

1. A decrease in the volume of the affected parts of the lung.

2. Increasing transparency above - or downstream segments.

3. The appearance of peribronchial sclerosis. •4. Pulling up.

Against the background of a rough and enhanced pulmonary pattern, cellularity can be detected. The decisive diagnostic method is bronchography.

With the saccular form of bronchiectasis, pathologically altered bronchi look club-shaped expanded, a cellular pattern is determined. With cylindrical bronchiectasis, the bronchi are evenly expanded.


Antibacterial therapy is carried out during an exacerbation of the disease (preferably after determining the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics). The intrabronchial route of administration of drugs through a bronchoscope is preferred.

Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed: semisynthetic penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, quinolones. Endobronchial administration of drugs is advisable to combine with intramuscular or intravenous administration. For endobronchial administration, dioxidine, nitrofuran derivatives (furatsilin, furagin) and natural antiseptics (chlorophyllipt) are used.

Remediation of the bronchial tree, removal of purulent bronchial contents and sputum, is carried out using instillations through a nasal catheter or by bronchoscopy, introducing therapeutic solutions of antiseptics, mucolytics (mucosolvin, acetylcysteine). In order to rehabilitate the bronchial tree, the following are used: postural drainage several times a day, expectorants, bronchodilators, chest massage.

Detoxification therapy. Drink plenty of water up to 2-3 liters per day. Hemodez, isotonic sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution are injected intravenously.

Immunomodulating therapy. For treatment, leva-misol, diuciphon, thymalin, T-activin are used. To normalize general and pulmonary reactivity, tincture of ginseng, extract 'eleutherococcus, pantocrine, etc. are used.

Sanitation of the upper respiratory tract. Thorough treatment of teeth, chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, diseases of the nasal cavity.

Exercise therapy, respiratory gymnastics, massage, physiotherapy, sanatorium spa treatment. Exercise therapy and breathing exercises are carried out regularly. Massage of the chest improves drainage function, sputum discharge. Physiotherapy is performed when the phenomena of exacerbation of the disease subside. The patient is prescribed electrophoresis with calcium chloride, potassium iodide, inductothermy, microwave therapy. Sanatorium-resort treatment is carried out in the inactive phase of the disease in the warm season, best of all in the sanatoriums of the southern coast of Crimea.

Surgery. Indication: limited within individual segments or lobes of bronchiectasis without severe chronic obstructive bronchitis. Contraindication: 1) decompensated pulmonary heart; 2) renal amyloidosis with renal failure.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =


    John F. Murray (John F. Murray) Bronchiectasis and broncholithiasis are characterized by involvement in the pathological process of the tracheobronchial system, polyetiologic, rarely found in combination with each other. However, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of these pathological conditions are different. Bronchiectasis Definition. The term "bronchiectasis" (bronchiectasis)
    Bronchiectasis are constantly enlarged bronchi. Typically, bronchiectasis is the end result of severe or recurrent inflammation of the PI bronchial obstruction. Causes: viral, bacterial and fungal infections, inhalation of toxic gases, aspiration of gastric contents, impaired mucociliary clearance (with cystic fibrosis or ciliary epithelial dysfunction).
  3. ASA Classification of Patient Physical Condition (American Association of Anesthetists Classification)
    Grade 1 is a normal healthy subject. Grade 2 - a patient with mild systemic disorders. 3rd grade - a patient with significant systemic disorders that limit activity, but do not lead to disability. 4th grade - a patient with a severely disabling disease that poses a threat to life. 5th grade - a dying patient who may die within
  4. Classification of cytokines
    The classification of cytokines can be carried out according to their biochemical and biological properties, as well as according to the types of receptors by which cytokines carry out their biological functions. The classification of cytokines in structure (Table 1) takes into account not only the amino acid sequence, but primarily the tertiary structure of the protein, which more accurately reflects the evolutionary origin of the molecules [Nicola,
    First, we give the old traditional classification used in our country and based on the ICD-9. According to the latter, hypertension is classified according to stage, course and progression rate / table 7 /. TABLE 7 CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERTENSION
  6. Classification
    Three classifications of the disease are used: the Jura classification of the American Association of Rheumatology, the classification of juvenile chronic arthritis of the European League against rheumatism, and the classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis of the International League of Rheumatological Associations (Table 1). Comparative characteristics of classification criteria are presented in table. 2. Because this section
    Obesity is, apparently, a heterogeneous group of disorders with, in most cases, an unexplained etiology, as a result of which treatment of this condition is problematic and success is achieved only in 5% of cases. Several classifications of CO have been proposed, but not one of them is universal. G. Bray for the first time in 1979 provides an etiological classification of CO in humans,
  8. Classification
    There are numerous options for the clinical manifestations of this disease: sudden cardiac death (BCC), angina pectoris, painless myocardial ischemia (BIM), myocardial infarction (MI), post-infarction cardiosclerosis. A generally accepted clinical classification of coronary heart disease does not exist. This is due to rapidly changing ideas about the mechanisms of development of coronary insufficiency, with the presence of a common
  9. AH classification
    AH, as defined by the WHO Expert Committee, is a constantly increased SBP and / or DBP. Essential hypertension (primary hypertension, or hypertension) is an increased blood pressure in the absence of an obvious reason for its increase. Secondary hypertension (symptomatic) is hypertension, the cause of which can be identified. According to the latest recommendations of the European Society
    According to ICD-10 of the revision / Tab. 6/, in the rubric 170 “Atherosclerosis” various concepts are included, some of which are presented below. Table 6 CLASSIFICATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS / ICD-10/170 Atherosclerosis 170.1 Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries / Goldblatt kidney /
  11. Classification DZMZH
    The complexity of the correlation of the results of various studies, as well as the perception and implementation of treatment recommendations available in various sources of literature, is due to the presence of many classifications built on the basis of different principles underlying them. Most foreign publications use the classification adopted at the approval conference of the College of American
  12. Classification
    In order to assess the prognostic significance of the symptoms of NS and to distinguish a group of people with a particularly unfavorable course of the disease, E. Braunwald in 1989, a classification of NS was proposed, modified in 2000 (CW Hamm, E. Braunwald), in which NS is divided into classes and forms depending on the severity of the clinical picture of the disease and the conditions for the occurrence of ACS (table 29). Table 29.
    There are still no universally recognized classifications, including all the main forms of diseases of the gallbladder and ducts. I want to introduce you to the most common classification of chronic cholecystitis. (AM Nogaller, 1977) 1. ON ETIOLOGY (bile microflora): Enterococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal, salmonella, viral, dysentery, paratyphoid and
  14. Classification
    To assess the functional state of the kidneys, several different classifications are used. In our opinion, the most simple and rational classification of ANFN should be recognized, which distinguishes 5 stages of kidney damage (table. 2.2). GFR is accepted as the best index for assessing the overall renal function in both healthy and pathological patients. As already noted, normal GFR score
  15. Classifications
    Classification proposed by I. A. Kassirsky and G. A. Alekseeva (1962, 1970) 1. Posthemorrhagic anemia. 2. Anemia due to impaired circulation: a) iron deficiency anemia; b) iron-refractory anemia; c) B12- (folic) deficiency anemia; d) B12- (folic) refractory anemia due to impaired assimilation of vitamin B | 2 (folic acid) by the bone marrow; e)
  16. Classification
    In accordance with the latest International Classification of Oncological Diseases (1995), among trophoblastic neoplasms, there are: 1. Bubble drift (full or partial). 2. Invasive cystic drift. 3. Chorionic carcinoma or chorionepithelioma. 4. Chorioncarcinoma in combination with teratoma or embryonic cancer. 5. Malignant teratoma trophoblastic. 6.
  17. Classification of diseases
    History. The first classification of diseases in ancient China. In 1761 classification of diseases according to the organ principle of Morgagni. 1853 - First International Statistical Congress (Brussels)> Marc D'Espin and William Farr (on analytical grounds)> based on his Jacques Bertillon> 1893 session of the International Statistical Institute in Chicago 1st classification. International Statistical
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019