home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Methods for the early active detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Level 1 screening is done by a nurse under the supervision of a physician. Questioning, portable ventilometers are used. This allows you to identify not only mild forms of cyclic bronchial asthma, but also acyclic forms, lungs and moderate forms of chronic bronchitis.

The questionnaires include the epidemiological criteria of chronic bronchitis (cough up to 2-3 months a year for two years) in risk groups (working in dusty, gasified rooms, in the cold, with pneumotropic agents in the chemical industry). Alarming symptoms: cough, shortness of breath, decreased FEV1. The irreversible nature of obstruction is documented by tests with bronchodilators: an increase in FEV1 does not exceed 10-15%. For chronic obstructive bronchitis, a decrease in the FEV 1 indicator in dynamics is characteristic. Risk groups: smokers; patients with frequent acute respiratory viral infections; persons whose profession is associated with harmful pneumotropic factors.

Risk facts of bronchial asthma: frequent (2-3 times a year) ARVI; acute bronchopulmonary diseases with a protracted resolution of the inflammatory process; chronic bronchopulmonary diseases; bronchial asthma and (or) allergic diseases in the family; adverse environmental conditions in the area of ​​residence, at work and at home, in kindergarten and school (for children).

Ventilation using portable devices helps to identify chronic bronchitis, cyclic and acyclic forms of bronchial asthma.

The most acceptable for outpatient practice is the Ventilometer VM1. A doctor or nurse teaches the patient techniques for proper breathing, otherwise you can get an artifact.

The patient takes a quiet breath and exhale, 2-3 times. Then it is proposed to take a deep, slow breath followed by a sharp and complete exhalation into the device’s tube. Readings are recorded. Two more similar studies are being done, the evidence is being recorded. If the indicators differ by no more than ± 6% (according to FEV1, l), the result is reliable.
For the calculation, the experimental data with the maximum values ​​are taken.

Forced vital lung capacity by inspiration (FVC, l), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, l), Tiffno-Votchal index (FEVI / FVC,%), peak volume expiratory flow rate (PEF, l / min) are evaluated. The obtained patient indices are compared with normal ones by the nomogram attached to the device. Normal values ​​depend on the patient’s gender, age and height.

In healthy individuals, the FVC and FEVI values ​​should not be less than 80% of the norm, the FEV1 / FVC ratio ranges from 85-100%, PEF exceeds 75% of the norm.

The most common pathology options:

• FEV1 is lowered, FVC is normal or lowered, FEV1 / FVC is lowered, PEF is normal and / or lowered - a conclusion is made about the obstructive type of respiratory failure;

• FEV1 is normal or decreased, FVC is reduced, FEV1 / FVC is normal or increased, PEF is normal - a conclusion is made about the restrictive type of respiratory failure;

• FEV1 is reduced, FVC is reduced, FEV1 / FVC is normal, PEF is reduced - you should think about a mixed type of respiratory failure.

A rarer variant is when FEV1 is reduced, FVC is normal, FEV1 / FVC is reduced, PEF is reduced, and it is possible to express a judgment on obstruction of the upper respiratory tract (stenosis of the larynx, trachea, etc.).

Using table 19, the doctor and nurse will be able to assess the severity of respiratory disorders.

Samples with bronchodilators. Prior to the test, FEV1 and FVC are determined; the patient is inhaled with the test bronchodilator. After 20-40 minutes, at the peak of the drug, the parameters FEV1 and FVC are again determined. Determine (in%) the change in indicators after inhalation. An increase of 25% or more indicates a good reaction to the test drug, 15-24% - a moderate reaction, 10-14% - a weak reaction. The reaction is considered negative with a decrease of 10% or more.

<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Methods for the early active detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  1. Early Active Detection Methods
    The work to identify tuberculosis in adolescents is carried out in the following areas: 1) mass annual tuberculin diagnostics; 2) mass fluorography; 3) examination when seeking medical help. Tuberculinodiagnostics is carried out by applying a Mantoux test with 2TE PPD-L annually, regardless of the results of previous tests. According to the test results, the following groups are distinguished for
  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE (COPD) is a primary chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs with a predominant lesion of the distal airways and parenchyma, the formation of emphysema, impaired bronchial obstruction with the development of not completely reversible or irreversible bronchial obstruction caused by a pathological inflammatory reaction. Disease develops in
  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    This group of diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma, etc. There are 3 main mechanisms for the development of chronic kidney disease: bronchitogenic, pneumoniogenic and pneumonitogenic. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS is a chronic non-allergic inflammation of the bronchi leading to progressive impairment of pulmonary ventilation and
  4. 1.2. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE
    Treatment goals: 1. Prevention of the progression of COPD 2. Reducing the severity of symptoms 3. Increasing exercise tolerance 4. Improving the health status and quality of life 5. Prevention and treatment of complications 6. Reducing mortality Patient management tactics are characterized by a stepwise increase in the volume of therapy, depending on the severity diseases. On the
  5. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHYSIS /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic airway obstruction due to chronic bronchitis / chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    The group of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary emphysema (Table 15.1). Quite certain groups are made up of individuals with predominant chronic bronchitis or emphysema (Table 15.2). Many patients develop destructive processes overlapping at the level of the bronchi (in chronic bronchitis) and acini
  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Obstructive pulmonary diseases include the following: chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchiolitis. Chronic obstructive bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can be simple and obstructive. Simple chronic bronchitis is a disease characterized by hyperplasia and excessive production of bronchial mucus
  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Comparative characteristics of obstructive pulmonary diseases {foto239} Preoperative assessment of the condition of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Analysis of clinical and instrumental data, including functions of external respiration, arterial blood gases, chest X-ray (reduction of FEV <50% of the norm corresponds to compensated respiratory failure / shortness of breath
  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    General Information Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common form of lung disease found in anesthetic practice. COPD incidence increases with age of patients; risk factors include smoking and male gender (about 20% of men have COPD). In the vast majority of cases, COPD is asymptomatic or with minor
  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    Characteristic features Obstructive pulmonary disease associated with cigarette smoking - pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis - are often combined, but are completely different processes. Emphysema destroys the alveolar surface membrane and blood vessels, reducing the elasticity of the lung tissue and the diffusion capacity of the lungs, leaving the airways morphologically
  11. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. Bronchial lung
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. BRONCHIAL
  12. Early active disease detection
    Not always a person experiencing bodily and mental illness, immediately seeks medical help. The insidiousness of many diseases lies in the fact that their preclinical period stretches for many years, and the morphologically irreversible process corresponds to a fully developed clinic. This applies to diseases such as chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, ischemic disease
  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in children
    Protocol code: 04-044в Profile: pediatric Stage: hospital Purpose of stage: 1. Establishment of a final diagnosis and development of treatment tactics; 2. elimination of inflammatory manifestations in the lungs; 3. elimination of symptoms of bronchial obstruction, symptoms of intoxication and correction of metabolic disorders; 4. improving the quality of life. Duration of treatment: 21 days ICD codes: J44.0 Chronic
  14. Early active detection of kidney and urinary tract diseases
    The primary health care team provides level 1 screening, including complaints analysis (rapid questionnaires), and results of a clinical analysis of freshly released urine. Risk groups are young children, pregnant women, men over 50 years old, women over 60 years old. If pathology is detected (proteinuria, leukocyturia, hematuria) after a doctor’s examination
  15. Early active detection of bowel disease
    Questionnaires include signs of dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation, and blood excrement with feces. Screening of the 1st level includes analysis of feces for digestibility, occult blood, digital examination of the rectum. The further examination program is determined after a physical examination. Endogenous risk factors for colon cancer: the nature of nutrition (a combination in the diet of coarse fiber with
  16. Early active detection of rheumatic diseases
    Level 1 screening includes questionnaires that include diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, reactive arthritis, gout, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic scleroderma. Risk group for rheumatoid arthritis: female subpopulation older than 15 years with clear intra-family correlations. Risk group for osteoarthritis: persons over 50 with overweight.
  17. Early active detection of diseases of the endocrine system
    Diabetes. Level 1 screening includes questionnaires, glucotest. Significant risk classes (latent, potential diabetes) - individuals with normal carbohydrate tolerance, but with a greater risk of developing diabetes mellitus; persons in whom both parents are sick with diabetes or one of the parents is sick, and the other on the hereditary line has patients with diabetes; women giving birth to a living or
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com