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- a pathological condition consisting in the inability of the circulatory system to deliver to organs and tissues such an amount of blood that is necessary for their normal functioning.

Clinical classification

Stage 0: there are no signs of circulatory failure.

Stage I: the appearance during physical exertion of small shortness of breath, tachycardia, moderate cyanosis; borders of the lungs without change, vesicular breathing with a hard tint; borders, relative cardiac dullness are moderately expanded, the liver and spleen are not enlarged.

II-A stage: a) left ventricular failure: shortness of breath while performing normal physical work, sometimes asthma attacks (more often at night), palpitations; dry cough, hemoptysis, acrocyanosis; lung boundaries within normal limits; hard breathing, dry rales, sometimes finely bubbly wet rales along axillary lines; often atrial fibrillation, extrasystole, sinus tachycardia; the liver and spleen are not enlarged; no peripheral edema;

b) right ventricular failure: shortness of breath at rest is absent, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, decreased diuresis, acrocyanosis, edema of the lower extremities; vesicular breathing; heart expanded to the right; the liver is significantly enlarged, the edge is rounded, painful, sometimes a small amount of free fluid is determined in the abdominal cavity.

II-B stage: shortness of breath at the slightest exertion, palpitations, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, decreased diuresis; peripheral edema, acrocyanosis, orthopnea, anasarca, often ascites, hydrothorax; harsh breathing, dry and wet sonorous stagnant rales; atrial fibrillation and other rhythm disturbances; the liver is enlarged, dense, more often with a pointed edge, less painful; in most cases, free fluid in the abdominal cavity

Stage III (dystrophic): edematous syndrome, hydrothorax, ascites; pneumosclerosis; atrial fibrillation (tachysystolic form)

The stage of circulatory failure should be indicated in any diagnosis associated with pathology of the cardiovascular system.

List of recommended literature: 1 Murashko V.
B, Strutinsky A. V. Electrocardiography M .: Medicine, 1987, 256 s. 2. Orlov V. N. Guide to Electrocardiography M .: Medicine, 1983, 526 s. 3. Potemkin V. Century. Endocrinology M .: Medicine, 1986. 430 p. 4. Makolkin V.I., Ovcharenko S.I. Internal diseases M .: Medicine, 1989. 447 p. 5. Yaroshevsky A.Ya. Clinical Nephrology L .: Medicine, 1971.442 p. 6. Fundamentals of Nephrology (Ed. By E. M. Tareev). M .: Medicine, 1972. 552 p. 7. Internal diseases (Ed. By A. S. Smetnev, V. G. Kukes). M .: Medicine, 1982, 495 p. 8. Violations of the rhythm and conduction of the heart (3. I. Yanushkevichus, Yu. Yu. Bredikis, A.I. Lukoshevichyute, P.V. Zabela) M: Medicine, 1984. 287 p. 9. Wayne A.M., Solovyova A.D., Kolosova O.A. Vegetovascular dystonia. M .: Medicine, 1981. 318 p. 10. Pyatak O.A., Kamensky A. G. Classification and terminological interpretation of circulatory diseases K. Zdorovya, 1984. 327 p.
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