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Pathological gastroesophageal reflux is a violation of physiological mechanisms, determined by the state of the lower esophageal sphincter, diaphragmatic-esophageal ligament, mucous membrane, diaphragmatic coma; the intra-abdominal part of the esophagus, the circular muscle fibers of the stomach and occurs when swallowing (achalasia, cardiospasm - lack of relaxation of the muscular sphincters, chalasia - relaxation of the cardiac sphincter).

Pathological gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of regurgitation, heartburn, dysphagia, and complications such as esophagitis and stricture, often accompanying a hiatal hernia.

Classification of achalasia of the cardia (cardiospasm) (according to B.V. Petrovsky, 1957)

Stage I - functional spasm without expansion of the esophagus;

Stage II - persistent spasm with moderate expansion of the esophagus,

Stage III - cicatricial change in muscle layers with a pronounced expansion of the esophagus;

Stage IV - cardiostenosis with a large expansion of the esophagus and S-shaped curvature.

Diagnostic criteria

1) Regurgitation and dysphagia; 2) heartburn; 3) a feeling of fullness after eating.

Atypical symptoms: belching, pseudo-cardiac chest pain, chronic cough, wheezing, hoarseness.

Diagnosis Examples

Cardiac achalasia (functional) without expansion of the esophagus.

2. Achalasia of the cardia (persistent spasm) with moderate expansion of the esophagus.

3. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux with cardiostenosis, a large expansion of the esophagus and its S-shaped curvature.
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