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PATHOLOGICAL GASTROESTESTINAL REFLUX
Pathological gastroesophageal reflux is a violation of physiological mechanisms, determined by the state of the lower esophageal sphincter, diaphragmatic-esophageal ligament, mucous membrane, diaphragmatic coma; the intra-abdominal part of the esophagus, the circular muscle fibers of the stomach and occurs when swallowing (achalasia, cardiospasm - lack of relaxation of the muscular sphincters, chalasia - relaxation of the cardiac sphincter).
Pathological gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of regurgitation, heartburn, dysphagia, and complications such as esophagitis and stricture, often accompanying a hiatal hernia.
Classification of achalasia of the cardia (cardiospasm) (according to B.V. Petrovsky, 1957)
Stage I - functional spasm without expansion of the esophagus;
Stage II - persistent spasm with moderate expansion of the esophagus,
Stage III - cicatricial change in muscle layers with a pronounced expansion of the esophagus;
Stage IV - cardiostenosis with a large expansion of the esophagus and S-shaped curvature.
1) Regurgitation and dysphagia; 2) heartburn; 3) a feeling of fullness after eating.
Atypical symptoms: belching, pseudo-cardiac chest pain, chronic cough, wheezing, hoarseness.
Cardiac achalasia (functional) without expansion of the esophagus.
2. Achalasia of the cardia (persistent spasm) with moderate expansion of the esophagus.
3. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux with cardiostenosis, a large expansion of the esophagus and its S-shaped curvature.
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PATHOLOGICAL GASTROESTESTINAL REFLUX
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- Pathological reaction, pathological process, pathological condition
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- HESIA HERNIA
- mixing through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm into the posterior mediastinum of any organ of the abdominal cavity (intestinal loops, abdominal segment of the esophagus, cardiac part of the stomach, etc.) Classification (according to V. X. Vasilenko, A. L. Grebeneva, 1978) I. Types hernias: 1. Fixed and non-fixed (for axial and paraesophageal hernias) 2. Axial - esophageal, cardiac,
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- HESA HERNIA
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- Esophageal hernia
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- Lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction
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- Dysphagia, chest pain, and gastroesophageal reflux
Dysphagia and chest pain are a common clinical problem, the manifestations of which can seriously affect the quality of life and often require a quick assessment and diagnosis. The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with the normal physiology of the esophagus in order to use this information as a basis for evaluating patients with dysphagia and chest pain. In addition, the chapter presents clinical
- INTRODUCTION TO THE PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY COURSE. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY. CONTENTS, OBJECTIVES, OBJECTS AND RESEARCH METHODS
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- Clinical correlations of esophageal dysfunction
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- Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal tract
Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, the vestibular part of the larynx is affected (epiglottis, scoop-epiglottis and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn occurs
- Gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver.
Changes in the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy are associated mainly with its anatomical displacement by an increasing uterus. The axis of the stomach changes its position from vertical to horizontal, which leads to an increase in intragastric pressure and a change in the angle of connection of the stomach with the esophagus. This in turn leads to relative insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter. If
- Gastrointestinal diseases
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- ASPIRATION OF THE GASTRIC CONTENT
Definition Aspiration of gastric contents is called inhalation of gastric contents into the tracheobronchial tree. Etiology Passive regurgitation or active vomiting of gastric contents in patients who are unable to protect the respiratory tract. Typical cases All patients with a decrease in laryngeal reflexes: anatomical abnormalities in the structure of the larynx itself or