home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

UPPER EXTREMITY BELT

The shoulder blade (scapula) is a flat bone of a triangular shape, located behind the rib cage at the level of II – VIII ribs (Fig. 36, 37).

In the scapula, the costal and dorsal surfaces, the upper, lower and lateral angles, as well as the upper, lateral (lateral) and medial (inner) edges are distinguished. The dorsal (posterior) surface of the scapula with the spine of the scapula is divided into supraspinatus and infraspinatus fossa; spine of the scapula passes into the shoulder process - acromion. The shoulder blade also has a joint surface for connecting it to the humerus and the coracoid process directed forward.

The clavicle (clavicula) is an S-shaped curved bone that has a body, acromial and sternal ends with articular surfaces (Fig.
38).

Fig. 38.

Right collarbone

(bottom view):

1 - acromial articular surface; 2 - trapezoidal line; 3 - a furrow of a subclavian muscle; 4 - the body of the clavicle; 5 - sternal end; o - sternal articular surface; 7 — impression of the costoclavicular ligament; 8 - a conical tubercle; 9— acromial end



The first articulates with the shoulder process (acromion) of the scapula, the second with the sternum.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

UPPER EXTREMITY BELT

  1. LOWER LIMB
    The pelvic bone (os coxae) in adults looks like a whole bone. Up to 16 years old, it consists of three separate bones: the iliac, sciatic and pubic. The bodies of these bones on the outer surface form the acetabulum, which serves as the junction of the pelvic bone with the femur (Fig. 46). {foto48} Fig. 46. ​​Pelvic bone, right: A - view from the lateral side: 1 - iliac crest; 2
  2. MUSCLES AND FACES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY
    Depending on the topographic position and function, the muscles of the upper limb are divided into the muscles of the shoulder girdle and the muscles of the free part of the upper limb (Fig. 70, 71). {foto73} Fig. 70. The muscles of the belt of the upper limb and shoulder (front view): 1 - subscapularis muscle; 2 - a large round muscle; 3 - the coracoid brachial muscle; 4 - triceps muscle of the shoulder; 5, 10 - the brachial muscle; 6 - shoulder
  3. Upper limb massage
    I. p. Massaged - sitting, having a roller at hand or lying down It will be more convenient if the patient sits. The movements go towards the axillary lymph nodes, i.e. from the hand upward and elbow bend and higher to the shoulder and armpit. You can fix the massaged hand with one hand, and massage with the other. Massage brush. {foto45} The direction of the main massage movements on the upper limbs {foto46} Massage
  4. Blockade of the nerves of the upper limb
    For anesthesia during surgical interventions on the upper limb, a brachial plexus blockade (at one or several levels) or its terminal branches is used. Anatomy of the brachial plexus The brachial plexus almost completely provides the somatic innervation of the upper limb. The brachial plexus is formed by the anterior branches of the spinal nerves C5-C8 and T1 (Fig. 17-1).
  5. UPPER EXTREMITY BONE COMPOUNDS
    The joints of the free upper limb connect the bones of this part with each other, as well as with the belt of the upper limb. The shoulder joint (articulatio humeri) is formed by the head of the humerus, the articular cavity of the scapula, which is supplemented by the articular lip (Fig. 44). {foto46} The capsule of the joint covers the head of the humerus on the anatomical neck, and is attached along the edge of the scapula
  6. UPPER EXTREMITY DAMAGES
    Fracture of the head of the humerus Traumogenesis: Burning with support on an outstretched arm, on the elbow, on the shoulder joint. D - ka: Localized pain, hemorrhage, edema, soreness with bimanual palpation of the shoulder. You can feel the crepitation of the fragments. The diagnosis is established taking into account the mechanism of injury, the age of the patients, characteristic signs. Differentiate from shoulder dislocations,
  7. SKELET OF FREE UPPER EXTREMITY
    The humerus (humerus) refers to the long tubular bones, has a body and upper and lower ends (Fig. 40, 41). The upper end, thickened, forms the head of the humerus. A shallow furrow — the anatomical neck — runs along the edge of the head, and large and small tubercles, separated by a furrow, are located near it. The thinnest part between the head of the humerus and its body is called
  8. UPPER EXTREMITY BONES
    TOP BONES
  9. Injuries. Fractures of the upper limbs
    During fractures, massage helps to reduce pain, improves tissue trophism and recovery functions, prevents muscle atrophy and stiffness in neighboring joints. Typically, in children, fractures heal very quickly, so massage can be started after removal of the plaster cast. During the massage, check the state of muscle tone, the presence of spasm of individual muscle bundles. In areas where
  10. CONDUCTIVE ANALGESIS FOR EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE
    CONDUCTIVE ANALGESIS FOR OPERATIONS IN THE TOP
  11. Game exercises in depth to the waist
    This set of exercises is aimed at developing courage and confidence in water, introduces the child to such properties of water as viscosity, resistance, exercises are performed at a depth to the waist. The child learns to move along the bottom, dive headlong into the water and navigate underwater, breathe correctly in the water. Particular attention is recommended to be paid to immersion under water and prolonged exhalations in
  12. LIMB SKELETON
    In the process of human development, the skeleton of the limbs has changed significantly. The upper limbs acquired greater mobility, began to fulfill the function of the organs of labor, perform complex and extensive movements, and the lower limbs - the function of movement and support, holding the human body upright. In the skeleton of the upper and lower extremities of a person, a belt and a free part are distinguished. Belt top
  13. UPPER RESPIRATORY DISEASES
    Lewis Weinstein (Louis Weinstein) Diseases of the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasopharynx, sinuses, larynx) are among the most common human diseases. In the vast majority of cases, this pathology, accompanied by transient malaise, does not carry a direct threat to life and does not cause prolonged disability. Diseases of the nose
  14. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract
    Most cases of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract are caused by relatively few conditions (Table 39.1). Peptic ulcer (gastric and duodenal ulcer) tops the list, followed by erosive disease of the stomach and esophagus and bleeding from varicose veins. When a source of bleeding is suspected based on history and physical examination, the final
  15. Upper airway obstruction
    Acute obstruction of the upper respiratory tract due to pathological processes leading to narrowing of the larynx and bronchi is the most common cause of acute respiratory failure, requiring emergency treatment at the prehospital stage in children. The urgency of the situation is associated with early developing decompensation, which, in turn, is due to the narrow airways of the child, the presence of loose
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com