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APPENDIX

LABORATORY INDICATORS OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE



Introductory Commentary



Since the reference book “Internal Diseases” is a textbook used in many countries of the world, preparing the Appendix, the authors took into account the fact that in many laboratories a system of international units is used. In this regard, if possible and necessary, the usual laboratory indicators are given in both traditional and international units. Values ​​in international units are shown in brackets after the traditional units. The use of the System of International Units was supported by the 30th WHO Assembly (May 1977) with the aim of introducing the international measurement language into medical practice1. The main, derived international units, other units of measurement used in this Appendix are presented in table. 1-3 applications. These and other laboratory scorecards can be found at the end of the Appendix.



Ascitic fluid See table. 39-1.



Body fluids and body weights



Body fluid, total volume: 50% (with obesity) - 70% (in individuals with reduced body weight) body weight. Intracellular fluid: 30-40% of body weight. Extracellular fluid: 20-30% of body weight. Blood: total volume in men: 69 ml / kg body weight; in women: 65 ml / kg body weight. Plasma volume in men: 39 ml / kg body weight; among women:

40 ml / kg body weight. The volume of red blood cells in men: 30 ml / kg of body weight (1.15-1.21 l / m2 of body surface); in women: 25 ml / kg body weight (0.95-1.00 l / m body surface).







1 SI for medical professions, Geneva, World Health Organization. 1977.

Cerebrospinal fluid1



Osmolarity - 292-297 mosm / l. Volume (adults) - 100-160 ml. Pressure - 50-180 mm of water. Art.

Electrolytes: sodium - 137-145 meq / l; potassium - 2.7-3.9 meq / l; calcium - 2.1-3.0 meq / l; magnesium - 2.0-2.5 meq / l; phosphorus - 12-20 mg / l; chlorides - 116-122 meq / l; bicarbonates - 20-24 meq / l.

PCO2 - 45-49 mm Hg. Art. pH 7.31-7.34. Glucose - 400-700 mg / l. Lactate - 100-200 mg / l. Pyruvate - 0.078-0.081 meq / l. The ratio of lactate: pyruvate is 26.0. Total protein - 200-450 mg / l; prealbumin - 2-6%; albumin - 56-75%; ? 1-globulin - 2-7%; ? 2-globulin - 4-12%; ? -globulin - 8-16%; ? -globulin - 3-12%; IgG - 10-14 mg / l; IgA - 1-3 mg / l;

IgM - 0.1-1.2 mg / l; IgG synthesis rate (-) 9.9 - (+) 3.3 mg / day. Nitrogen - 250-800 mcg / l. Urea - 4.4-4.8 mmol / L. Creatinine - 5-19 mg / l. Uric acid - 2.3-2.7 mg / l. Putrescin - 130-230 pmol / ml. Spermidine - 110-190 pmol / ml. AMP - 3-10 nmol / L. Homovanilinic acid - 35-85 mcg / ml. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 0.03-0.05 μg / ml. 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol - 13-17 mg / l. The major myelin protein is less than 4 ng / ml. White blood cells: general - less than 0.004 * 10 / l; lymphocytes - 60-70%; monocytes - 30-50%; neutrophils - 1-3%.



Biochemical blood counts



See also the section “Functional tests”, in particular the subsection “Metabolic and endocrine tests”.

Acetoacetate, plasma: less than 10 mg / l (less than 0.1 mmol / l) Albumin, serum: 35–55 g / l Aldolase: 0–8 units / l [0-130 nmol / (s »l)]? 1 Antitrypsin, serum: 0.85-2.13 g / L? -Amino nitrogen, plasma: 30-55 mg / L (2.1-3.9 mmol / L)? -Petoprotein (adults), serum: less than 30 mg / ml Serum Aminotransferase:

Aspartic (ACT, CGOT): 10-40 units. Carmen / ml; 6-18 units / l; [100-300 μmol / (s • l)] __

Alanine (ALT, SGPT): 10-40 units. Carmen / ml; 3–26 units / l [50–430 μmol / (s “l)]

Ammonia, whole blood, venous: 0.8-1.1 mg / l (47-65 μmol / l) Amylase, serum: 60-180 units. Somoji / dl; 0.8–3.2 u / l (13–53 nmol / l) Gas composition of arterial blood:

НСО3–: 21–28 meq / L (21–28 nmol / L); РСО2: 35–45 mm Hg. Art. (4.7-6.0 kPa) pH: 7.38-7.44 Po2: 8-100 mm Hg. Art. (11-13 kPa)

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), serum: 4-10 mg / l (23-57 mmol / l).

White blood cells: 250-400 mg / l (1420-2270 μmol / l).

Barbiturates, serum: not determined, phenobarbital, “potentially lethal” (Schreiner) level: approximately 90 mg / l (390 μmol / l). The shortest action barbiturates: 35 mg / l (150 μmol / l). The bases are common, serum: 145-155 meq / l (145-155 mmol / l).
? -Hydroxybutyrate, plasma: less than 30 mg / l (less than 0.3 mmol / l). Total bilirubin, serum (Malloy — Evelyn): 3-10 mg / l (5.1-17 micromol / l); direct bilirubin, serum: 1-3 mg / l (1.7-5.1 micromol / l), indirect bilirubin, serum: 2-7 mg / l (3.4-12 micromol / l).



1 Since the values ​​of the indicators of cerebrospinal fluid are equal to the corresponding blood values, it is recommended to use blood plasma for analysis.

Ceruloplasmin, serum:

Bromides, serum: not determined. Toxic levels: more than 17 meq / l;

1500 mg / L (17 mmol / L). Bromsulfalen, BSF (5 mg / kg body weight, intravenous): delay in the body after 45 minutes no more than 5%.

C-reactive protein, serum: 0.07-8.2 mg / l.

Calciferols (Vitamin D), plasma: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1.25 (OH) 2D]: 20-60 pg / ml (48-144 nmol / L). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D]:

8–42 ng / ml (20–100 μmol / L).

Ionized calcium: 2.3–2.8 meq / l; 45-56 mg / l (1.1-1.4 mmol / l).

Calcium, plasma: 4.5-5.5 meq / l; up to 105 mg / l (2.2-2.6 mmol / l).

CO2 binding force, serum (sea level): 21–28 meq / l; 50–65 volume% (21–28 mmol / L).

The content of COa, plasma (sea level): 21-30 meq / l; 50–70 volume% (21–30 mmol / L).

C02 voltage, arterial blood (sea level): 35-45 mm Hg. Art. (4.7-6.0 kPa).

Carbon monoxide, blood: no symptoms with hemoglobin saturation of more than 20%.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): 0–2.5 ng / ml (in healthy non-smokers) (0–2.5 μg / l).

Carotenoids, serum: 0.5-3 mg / l (0.9-5.6 μmol / l). 270-370 mg / l (1.8-2.5 μmol / l).

Chlorides, serum (as C1 ~): 98-106 meq / l (98-106 mmol / l).

Cholesterol, see table. 4 Applications.

Serum complement: Total hemolytic (CHso): 150-250 units / ml.

Sz: 0.55-1.20 g / l. C4: 0.20-0.50 g / l.

Copper, serum (mean ± 1 standard deviation): 114 ± 14 μg / dl (17.9 μmol / L).

Creatine phosphokinase, serum (total): women - 10–70 units / ml [0.17–1.18 mmol / (s »l)]; men: 25–90 units / ml [0.42-1.51 mmol / (s »l)].

Isozymes, serum: fraction 2 (MB) less than 5% of the total.

Creatinine, serum: less than 15 mg / l (less than 133 μmol / l).

Digoxin, serum: therapeutic level: 1.2 ± 4 ng / ml (1.54 ± 0.5 nmol / l); toxic level: more than 2.4 ng / ml (more than 3.2 nmol / l).

Ethanol, blood: intoxication of mild or moderate degree: 0.8-2.0 g / l (17-43 mmol / l); severe intoxication: 2.5-4.0 g / l (54-87 mmol / l); severe intoxication: more than 4.0 g / l (more than 87 mmol / l).

Fatty acids, free (unesterified), plasma: less than 180 mg / l (less than 0.7 mmol / l).

Ferritin, serum: 15-200 ng / ml (15-200 mcg / l). fibrinogen, plasma: see the section “Platelets and blood coagulation”.

Fibrinogen Cleavage Products: See Platelets and Blood Coagulability.

Folic acid, serum: 6-15 ng / ml (14-34 nmol / l).

Folic acid, red blood cells: 150-450 ng / ml cells (340-1020 nmol / l cells). y-L lutamyl transferase (transpeptidase), serum: 4-60 units / l [0.07-1.00 micromol / (s "l)].

Gastrin, serum: 40-200 pg / ml (40-200 ng / l).

Globulins, serum: 20-30 g / l.

Glucose (on an empty stomach), plasma: the norm is 750-1150 mg / l (4.2-6.4 mmol / l).

Diabetes mellitus: more than 1400 mg / l (with more than one measurement) (more than 7.8 mmol / l). Glucose, 2 hours after a meal, plasma: normal - less than 1400 mg / l (less than 7.8 mmol / l). Impaired glucose tolerance: 1400-2000 mg / l (7.8-11.1 mmol / l). Diabetes mellitus: more than 2000 mg / l (more than 11.1 mmol / l), with more than one measurement. Blood hemoglobin (sea level): men - 140-180 g / l (8.7-11.2 mmol / l); women - 120-160 g / l (7.4-9.9 mmol / l). Hemoglobin Aic: up to 6% of total hemoglobin.

Immunoglobulins, serum: IgA: 0.9-3.2 g / l; IgD: 0-0.08 g / l; IgE less than 0,00025 g / l; IgG: 8.0-15.0 g / l; IgM: 0.45-1.5 g / l.

Iron, serum: men and women (mean ± 1 standard deviation
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APPENDIX

  1. Applications
    ANNEX 1 {foto17} ANNEX 2 {foto18} ANNEX 3 {foto19} ANNEX 4 {foto20} {foto21} ANNEX 5 {foto22} ANNEX 6 {foto23} ANNEX 7 {foto24} ANNEX 8 {foto25} {foto26} ANNEX 9 {foto26} ANNEX 9 {foto26} } APPENDIX 10 ADAPTIVITY 1. It happens that I get angry. 2. Usually in the morning I
  2. Appendix 2
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  3. Appendices 2 and 3
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  4. App Design
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  5. Appendix 3
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  6. Appendix 5
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    Report on the results of a socio-psychological study of the replenishment of the draft spring (autumn) of 200 in (name of the military unit) 1) The report is addressed to the commander of the military unit and the head of the higher educational work body. 2) The report is signed by the deputy commander of the military unit for educational work. 3) The report is presented following the results of the winter
  10. Annex 1
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  11. Appendices to the relevant subsections of Section 2.
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  12. APPENDICES
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  13. Applications
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  14. APPENDIX ANTIARRHYTHMIC DRUGS AND NORMAL VALUES OF THE INTERVAL Q = T
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