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Acquired heart disease

Heart disease is a long-standing, preserved to date, designation of congenital or acquired morphological changes in the valvular apparatus, the walls of the heart and the large vessels extending from it. In this chapter, ACQUIRED HEART DEFECTS — conditions that have developed during the life of a patient as a result of heart disease or trauma, will be examined.

The essence of the disease is that as a result of shortening of the valve leaflets (insufficiency) or narrowing of the orifice (stenosis), often combined with changes in the subvalvular apparatus (shortening and deformation of the tendon chords and papillary muscles), there are violations of intracardiac hemodynamics with the subsequent development of compensatory hyperfunction and hypertrophy of the corresponding chambers of the heart. Further, as a result of a violation of the contractile function of the myocardium, disorders arise in one or another circle of blood circulation. Thus, with the progression of valvular lesions, heart defects regularly undergo a series of stages. In this regard, the clinical picture of the disease with the same heart disease in different patients will vary significantly.

The most common mitral valve defects (50-70% according to different authors), more rarely - aortic (8-27%).

Isolated defects of the tricuspid valve are found not more often than in 1% of cases, however, in combination with the defects of other valves, the lesion of this valve is observed in about half of the patients.

The nature of the lesion of the valve (insufficiency or stenosis of the hole) leaves an imprint on the course of the disease.
The causes of development of prenabrennye heart defects are very diverse, but the most frequent And they are rheumatism (at least 90% of all cases).

The classification proposed by N.M. Muharlyamov et al. (19 / °) 'unifies the terminology of acquired heart defects.


The name of the defect includes the name of the affected valve and reflects the perfection of the defect itself (insufficiency or stenosis of the orifice). The name of the defect indicates its origin (etiology), after the title - complications and stage of circulatory failure (if

pna develops).

In the clinical picture of the disease, two groups of symptoms are distinguished: • direct signs of malformation caused by impaired functioning of the valvular apparatus (the so-called valvular symptoms); 2) indirect signs of malformation due to compensatory hypertrophy and the multiplication of the corresponding chambers of the heart, as well as impaired blood circulation in various vascular areas.

Direct (valve) signs are criteria for one or another heart defect. Their detection allows you to make a diagnosis of valve damage. Indirect signs indicate valve severity and degree of hemodynamic disorder. However, the presence of only indirect signs does not give grounds for making a diagnosis of heart disease.
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Acquired heart disease

  1. Acquired valvular heart disease. Mitral heart defects (cipher 105; 134.0; 134.2)
    The modern nomenclature of acquired heart defects involves the isolation of insufficiency, stenosis, or their combinations of the mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve and the pulmonary artery valve. If the patient has one valve defect, it is necessary to speak about a simple one, with two defects of one valve - about a combined defect. For example, co-chelated mitral heart disease is a stenosis of the left
    Heart defects - congenital or acquired anomalies and deformations of the valves of the heart, holes or partitions between the chambers of the heart, violating intracardiac and systemic hemodynamics, predisposing to the development of acute or chronic circulatory failure. {foto36} Acquired heart defects are quite common, on average 0.5-10 / depending on the level of development
    Acquired heart disease always affects the valves, so called valve. They are based on either valve insufficiency (atrioventricular or main vessel), or stenosis of the mouth (venous or arterial), or a combination of both defects on one or two, less often several valves and orifices. All clinical manifestations of any acquired heart disease can be summarized in
    Definition Acquired heart defects are structural anomalies and deformations of the heart valves and subvalvular apparatus arising from various causes, which violate intracardiac and systemic hemodynamics, predisposing to the development of acute or chronic circulatory failure. Etiology Heart disease occurs due to various pathological processes.
    Acquired heart defects are one of the most common diseases. Hitting people of different age groups, they lead to permanent disability and represent a serious social problem. Despite sufficient knowledge of the clinical picture, errors in the diagnosis of these defects are quite common. Meanwhile, the requirements for correct diagnosis are extremely
  6. Acquired heart disease
    The most common cause of valvular heart disease is rheumatism. When assessing the severity of acquired heart defects in pregnant women, it is necessary to clarify the activity of the rheumatic process. The highest mortality in the postpartum period is observed when underestimation of the activity of rheumatism. Pregnancy is permitted only 2 years after the abatement of the active rheumatic process. AT
  7. Classification of Acquired Heart Diseases
    Depending on the location of the lesion, they acquire acquired malformations of the mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves. Despite the casuistic rarity of acquired valvular valve defects in the aircraft, they also found their reflection in ICD-10. Vices are considered combined in the presence of stenosis and failure of one valve and combined with the defeat of several valves. In terms of clinical
  8. Acquired Rheumatic Heart Diseases
    Acquired heart defects occur in 7-8% of pregnant women. For predicting outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth with acquired defects, the following factors are important: • activity of the rheumatic process; • form and stage of development of vice; • compensation or decompensation of blood circulation; • degree of pulmonary hypertension; • heart rhythm disorder; • joining obstetric
  9. Acquired heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES For preoperative examination, it is necessary to assess the severity and hemodynamic significance of heart damage, residual ventricular function and secondary dysfunction of the lungs, kidneys and liver. Concomitant coronary artery disease should be excluded, especially in the presence of risk factors in elderly patients. In aortic stenosis or regurgitation, myocardial ischemia can also occur in the absence of
  10. Heart disease acquired
    Causes Valvular defects (stenosis or insufficiency), myocardial infarction, scleroderma (calcification of valvular tissue), endocarditis. Valves in the left half of the heart, the mitral valve (prolapse), the aortic valve (stenosis) usually suffer. Symptoms: Heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, chest tightness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, night cough, swelling of the legs during exercise or at rest, fast
  11. Acquired Vices
  12. Acquired Vices
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  13. Valvular disease (heart disease).
    Heart defects are persistent structural changes in the heart that disrupt intracardiac and (or) systemic circulation. There are acquired and congenital heart defects. Acquired heart defects - lifetime and persistent lesions of the valvular apparatus of the heart and (or) the mouths of the great vessels. Congenital heart defects are a group name for structural anomalies of valves, orifices or partitions in
  14. Clinical protocol for the provision of medical care to patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (heart disease)
    ICD-10 rubric: Y5-GO9 Conditions in which medical aid should be provided All patients with heart defects are subject to referral for surgical treatment to the appropriate specialized institutions. In cases of impossibility or delay of surgical treatment, such patients are subject to outpatient examination and treatment at the place of residence. The survey may be conducted in the district
    HEART DISEASES. HEART VALVE DISEASES (HEARTHALTIES). RHEUMATISM. Myocardial Diseases. Pericardial Diseases. Tumors
  16. Acquired valvular pathology
    Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of damage to the valvular apparatus of the heart, but bacterial endocarditis, even after extraction of the tooth, can lead to pathological changes in the valves. In this regard, all patients operated on the valvular apparatus of the heart, it is recommended prophylactic antibiotics in the pre-, intra-and postoperative period. The exceptions are patients with
  17. Congenital heart defects
    Congenital heart disease is a pathological condition characterized by abnormal development of the heart and great vessels, resulting from a violation of embryogenesis in the period of 2-8 weeks of pregnancy under the influence of adverse external factors (viruses, toxic substances, etc.) and internal (products of altered metabolism etc.) environment on the background of hereditary (polygenic)
  18. Congenital Heart Disease
    Clinical classification of the most common congenital heart defects I group. Congenital heart defects with primary cyanosis. 1. Defects with early cyanosis and insufficiency of blood flow in the small circle: the triad, tetrad and Fallot pentad; atresia of the right ventricle. 2. Defects with primary cyanosis from the moment of birth and hypervolemia or hypertension of the small circle: arteriovenous
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