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Acquired Heart Defects

Heart disease is a long-standing, preserved to date, designation of congenital or acquired morphological changes in the valvular apparatus, the septum of the heart and large vessels departing from it. In this chapter, ACQUIRED HEART FAULTS will be considered - conditions that developed during the patient's life as a result of diseases or traumatic heart injuries.

The essence of the disease is that as a result of shortening of the valve cusps (insufficiency) or narrowing of the opening (stenosis), often combined with changes in the subvalvular apparatus (shortening and deformation of tendon chords and papillary muscles), intracardiac hemodynamics are disturbed, followed by the development of compensatory hyperfunction and hypertrophy of the corresponding chambers of the heart. In the future, as a result of a violation of the contractile function of the myocardium, disorders arise in one or another circle of blood circulation. Thus, with the progression of valvular lesions, heart defects naturally go through a number of stages. In this regard, the clinical picture of the disease with the same heart disease in different patients will vary significantly.

The most common are mitral valve defects (50–70% according to various authors), and somewhat less frequently, aortic valve defects (8–27%).

Isolated malformations of the tricuspid valve are found no more than in 1% of cases, however, in combination with defects of other valves, damage to this valve is noted in about half of patients.

The nature of the lesion of the valve (insufficiency or stenosis of the hole) leaves an imprint on the course of the disease.
The reasons for the development of acquired heart defects are very diverse, however, the most common And they are rheumatism (at least 90% of all cases).

Classification proposed by N.M. Mukharlyamovym et al. (19 / °) 'unifies the terminology of acquired heart defects.


The name of the defect includes the name of the affected valve and reflects the characteristics of the defect itself (failure or stenosis of the hole). The name of the defect is indicated by its origin (etiology), after the title - complications and the stage of circulatory failure (if

stain develops).

In the clinical picture of the disease, two groups of symptoms are distinguished: П direct signs of a defect caused by a malfunction of the valve apparatus (the so-called valve signs); 2) indirect signs of defect due to compensatory hypertrophy and platy of the corresponding chambers of the heart, as well as circulatory disorders in various vascular regions.

Direct (valve) signs are the criteria for a particular heart disease. Their detection allows you to diagnose valve damage. Indirect signs indicate the severity of valve damage and the degree of hemodynamic disorder. However, the presence of only indirect signs does not give rise to a diagnosis of heart disease.
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Acquired Heart Defects

  1. Acquired valvular heart disease. Mitral heart diseases (codes 105; 134.0; 134.2)
    The modern nomenclature of acquired heart defects involves the allocation of insufficiency, stenosis, or their combinations of mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve and pulmonary valve. If the patient has one valvular defect, it is necessary to talk about simple, with two defects of one valve - about a combined defect. For example, joint mitral heart disease is stenosis of the left
    Heart defects - congenital or acquired abnormalities and deformations of the heart valves, openings or partitions between the heart chambers, impairing intracardiac and systemic hemodynamics, predisposing to the development of acute or chronic circulatory failure. {foto36} Acquired heart defects are quite common, with an average of 0.5-10 / depending on the level of development
    Acquired heart defects always affect the valves, therefore they are called valve. They are based either on valve insufficiency (atrioventricular or main vessel), or stenosis of the mouth (venous or arterial), or a combination of both defects on one or two, less often several valves and mouths. All clinical manifestations of any acquired heart disease can be summarized in
    Definition Acquired heart defects are structural abnormalities and deformations of the heart valves and subvalvular apparatus resulting from various causes that disrupt intracardiac and systemic hemodynamics and predispose to the development of acute or chronic circulatory failure. Etiology Heart disease occurs due to various pathological processes.
    Acquired heart defects are one of the most common diseases. Affecting people of various age groups, they lead to permanent disability and pose a serious social problem. Despite the sufficient knowledge of the clinical picture, errors in the diagnosis of these defects are quite common. Meanwhile, the requirements for proper diagnosis are extremely
  6. Acquired Heart Defects
    The most common cause of valvular lesions of the heart is rheumatism. When assessing the severity of acquired heart defects in pregnant women, it is necessary to clarify the activity of the rheumatic process. The highest mortality in the postpartum period is observed with an underestimation of the activity of rheumatism. Pregnancy is allowed only 2 years after the subsidence of the active rheumatic process. IN
  7. Classification of Acquired Heart Defects
    Depending on the location of the lesion, acquired defects of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves are distinguished. Despite the casuistic rarity of acquired malformations of the LA valve, they also found reflection in the ICD-10. Defects are considered combined in the presence of stenosis and insufficiency of one valve and combined in case of damage to several valves. From a clinical point of view
  8. Acquired Rheumatic Heart Diseases
    Acquired heart defects are found in 7-8% of pregnant women. The following factors are important for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth with acquired defects: • activity of the rheumatic process; • form and stage of development of the defect; • compensation or decompensation of blood circulation; • degree of pulmonary hypertension; • heart rhythm disturbance; • joining obstetric
  9. Acquired heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES During the preoperative examination, it is necessary to assess the severity and hemodynamic significance of heart damage, residual ventricular function and secondary dysfunctions of the lungs, kidneys and liver. Concomitant coronary heart disease should be excluded, especially in the presence of risk factors in elderly patients. With aortic stenosis or regurgitation, myocardial ischemia can occur in the absence of
  10. Heart defects acquired
    Causes Valve defects (stenosis or insufficiency), myocardial infarction, scleroderma (calcification of valve tissue), endocarditis. Valves in the left half of the heart, mitral valve (prolapse), aortic valve (stenosis) usually suffer. Symptoms Palpitations, irregular heartbeat, chest tightness, shortness of breath, palpitations, night cough, swelling of the legs when exerted or at rest, fast
  11. Acquired vices
    703. Mesodiastolic or presystolic murmur in the top of the heart is connected 1) with mitral stenosis 2) with mitral insufficiency 145 3) with aortic insufficiency 4) with aortic stenosis 5) with the presence of PSD 704. AFFECT ANTITUDE SEVERE 1) with mitral stenosis 2) with mitral insufficiency 3)
  12. Acquired vices
    703- 1,712-3,721-4,730-3,739-5,704-4,733,722-5,731,740-2,705-4,714-2,723-2,732-5,741,4706,715- 1,724-4,733-4,742-4,707-4,716-2,725-5,734-4,743-
  13. Heart valve diseases (heart defects).
    Heart defects are persistent structural changes in the heart that interfere with intracardiac and (or) systemic circulation. Distinguish between acquired and congenital heart defects. Acquired heart defects are intravital and persistent lesions of the valvular apparatus of the heart and (or) the mouths of the great vessels. Congenital heart defects - the group name for structural abnormalities of valves, holes or septa in
  14. Clinical protocol for providing medical care to patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (heart defects)
    ICD-10 heading: U5-GO9 Conditions under which medical care should be provided All patients with heart defects should be referred for surgical treatment to the appropriate specialized institutions. In cases of impossibility or delay of surgical treatment, such patients are subject to outpatient examination and treatment at the place of residence. The survey may be conducted in district
  16. Acquired heart valve disease
    Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of damage to the valvular apparatus of the heart, however, bacterial endocarditis, even after tooth extraction, can lead to pathological changes in the valves. In this regard, the prophylactic prescription of antibiotics in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period is recommended to all patients operated on on the valvular apparatus of the heart. The exception is patients with
  17. Congenital heart defects
    Congenital heart disease is a pathological condition characterized by abnormalities in the development of the heart and great vessels, resulting from a violation of embryogenesis during the 2-8 weeks of pregnancy under the influence of adverse external factors (viruses, toxic substances, etc.) and internal (products of altered metabolism etc.) environment against the background of hereditary (polygenic)
  18. Congenital heart disease
    Clinical classification of the most common congenital heart defects group I. Congenital heart defects with primary cyanosis. 1. Defects with early cyanosis and circulatory failure in the small circle: triad, tetrad and pallad of Fallot; atresia of the right ventricle. 2. Defects with primary cyanosis from birth and hypervolemia or hypertension of the small circle: arteriovenous
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