Licensed books on medicine
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- narrowing of the esophagus due to congenital or acquired factors
Classification cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus
(G. L. Ratner, V. And Belokonev, 1982)
By etiology: burns with acids, alkalis, other burns
According to the time of obstruction: early (3-4 weeks), later (after 1 month)
According to the mechanism of development and clinical manifestations:
A. Functional obstruction of the esophagus
1. Functional anorexia. 2 Functional dysphagia
B. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus
1. According to the degree of constriction: mild, moderate, severe
2. On the localization of the stricture: high - the place of entry into the esophagus (cervical); median - aortic (bifurcation), low - epifrenial (cardiac), combined - esophagus and stomach.
3. By length - short (less than 3 cm), tubular (more than 3 cm), clearly shaped, total
4. The shape of suprastenotic expansion is conical, saccular
According to the presence of complications, false passages in the mediastinum, esophageal diverticula, cicatricial shortening of the esophagus, fistulas (esophageal-bronchial, esophageal-tracheal)
1) Dysphagia, 2) symptoms of reflux esophagitis: from bite, belching, aggravated in a horizontal position, 3) radiographic gastroesophageal reflux, shortening, 4) stricture, esophageal ulcers, hiatal hernia, 5) esophagoscopic recognition of reflux esophagitis.
Examples of the wording of the diagnosis
1. Functional obstruction of the esophagus, manifested by anorexia.
2. Functional obstruction of the esophagus, manifested by dysphagia.
3. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus of moderate severity, middle (bifurcation) localization.
4. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus is a severe form with a high (cervical) localization of the stricture, complicated by the formation of esophageal diverticula.
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- Atresia and stricture of the external auditory canal
Rubric atresia and strictures of the external auditory canal occur after injuries, burns, purulent otitis, complicated by external otitis, ulcerative processes in diphtheria, syphilis, lupus, etc. Narrowing of the external auditory canal is sometimes observed after a radical ear operation. In the elderly and senile age, there is a collapse of the walls of the ear canal due to the loss of their elasticity, which leads to
- Barrett's esophagus, esophagus adenocarcinoma
There is no reliable data on the incidence of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus, but it has been proven that the risk of the disease increases in this case by 20-40 times. Presumably, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are similar to those in bowel cancer - chronic damage to the epithelium and cell proliferation lead to genetic alterations and, ultimately, to the neoplastic process.
- PEPTIC Ulcers of the esophagus
- a type of esophagitis, often combined with cholelithiasis and gastroduodenal ulceration, accompanied by cardia failure, caused most often by hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Diagnostic criteria 1) Sternum pain, aggravated after eating, when swallowing, when lying down; 2) dysphagia; 3) heartburn, belching, regurgitation of gastric contents; 4) complications:
- Anesthesia for operations on the esophagus
General Information Operations on the esophagus are performed on tumors, gastroesophageal reflux and motility disorders (achalasia). Operations include endoscopy, esophageal dilatation, cervical esophagiomyotomy, open or thoracoscopic distal esophagomyotomy, esophagectomy, and en block esophagus resection. Among the tumors of the esophagus most common is squamous cell carcinoma, less often adenocarcinoma,
- Methods for the study of the esophagus
Along with the well-known subjective research methods (clarification of the circumstances of the development of the pathological condition, analysis of complaints, etc.), in the study of the esophagus two methods of objective research are the most significant: radiological (radiological) and esophagoscopic. The main indication for the study of the esophagus is a violation of its function - i.e. certain violations
- Diseases of the esophagus
1. What symptom is most often observed in diseases of the esophagus? Regurgitation. 2. How does regurgitation differ from reflux? Regurgitation is a passive, retrograde movement of swallowed food to the upper esophageal sphincter; as a rule, food does not have time to get into the stomach. Most often, regurgitation results from esophageal peristalsis, esophageal obstruction or asynchronous
- DIETARY DIVERTICULES
- blindly ending process or protrusion of an organ. LINKER DIVERTICULES - localized on the back of the pharynx and esophagus. Classification of esophagus diverticulums, diverticulitis (according to Yusbasic, 1961). By localization: 1. Faringo-esophagal (Tsenker), 2. Bifurcation. 3. Epiphrenal. Largest diverticulum: Stage I - protrusion of the esophageal mucosa
The esophagus (esophagus) is a cylindrical tube 25-30 cm long that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It begins at the level of the VI cervical vertebra, passes through the chest cavity, the diaphragm, and flows into the stomach to the left of the X — XI thoracic vertebra. There are three parts of the esophagus: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The cervical part is located between the trachea and the spine at the level of the VI cervical and up to the second thoracic
- Esophagus features
The esophagus in young children has a spindle shape, it is narrow and short. In a newborn, its length is only 10 cm, in children at 1 year of life - 12 cm, at 10 years old - 18 cm. Its width, respectively, is 7 years old - 8 mm, at 12 years old - 15 mm. On the esophageal mucosa there are no glands. It has thin walls, weak development of muscle and elastic tissues, it is well supplied with blood.
- BEAUTIFUL DIGITAL TUMORS
Classification 1. Solitary myomas. - Acquired neoplasia. 2. Nodular multiple myomas. 3. Common leiomyomatosis 4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc. 5. Cysts. Diagnostic criteria Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus. Examples of the formulation of the diagnosis 1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus. 2. Nodular multiple myomas of the esophagus. 3
- Esophagus (problems)
The esophagus is the part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the stomach. The esophagus passes through the neck, chest and diaphragm. It is characterized by the following diseases; DIVERTICULITIS, HERNIA, OR CONGENITAL DEFECTS. Pain in the esophagus can be caused by a foreign object in it or by the feeling that there is a foreign object in it. Since the esophagus is the beginning of the digestive tract,
- Diseases of the esophagus
The normal esophagus is a hollow, well stretchable muscular tube that extends from the level of the VI cervical vertebra to the level of the XI or XII thoracic vertebrae. These levels correspond to the transition of the pharynx to the esophagus and the esophago-gastric junction. In newborns, the esophagus is 10–12 cm long, and in adults it is 23–25 cm. There are three anatomical narrowings of the esophagus, which persist for
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus
The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at level XI of the thoracic vertebra. The esophagus is a tube 24-25 cm long, flattened in the anteroposterior direction. Three sections are distinguished in the esophagus: 1. Cervical. 2. Thoracic. 3. Abdominal. In the cervical and early thoracic