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- narrowing of the esophagus associated with congenital or acquired factors
Classification of cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus
(G. L. Ratner, V.I. Belokonev, 1982)
By etiology: burns with acids, alkalis, other burns
By the time of development of obstruction: early (3-4 weeks), late (later than 1 month)
By the mechanism of development and clinical manifestations:
A. Functional obstruction of the esophagus
1. Functional anorexia. 2 Functional dysphagia
B. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus
1. By the degree of narrowing: light, medium, heavy
2. By localization of stricture: high - the place of entry into the esophagus (cervical); median - aortic (bifurcation), low - epiphrenic (cardiac), combined - esophagus and stomach.
3. In length - short (less than 3 cm), tubular (more than 3 cm), clearly shaped, total
4. In the form of suprastenotic expansion, conical, saccular
According to the presence of complications, false passages in the mediastinum, esophageal diverticula, cicatricial shortening of the esophagus, fistulas (esophageal-bronchial, esophageal-tracheal)
1) Dysphagia, 2) symptoms of reflux esophagitis: from a burn, belching, aggravated in a horizontal position, 3) radiological gastroesophageal reflux, shortening, 4) stricture, esophageal ulcers, hiatal hernia, 5) esophagoscopic recognition of reflux esophagus.
1. Functional obstruction of the esophagus, manifested by anorexia.
2. Functional obstruction of the esophagus, manifested by dysphagia.
3. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus of moderate severity, median (bifurcation) localization.
4. Mechanical obstruction of the esophagus is a severe form with a high (cervical) localization of stricture, complicated by the formation of esophageal diverticula.
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- Atresia and strictures of the external auditory meatus
Ruby atresia and strictures of the external auditory canal occur after injuries, burns, purulent otitis media complicated by external otitis media, ulcerative processes in diphtheria, syphilis, lupus, etc. Narrowing of the external auditory canal is sometimes observed after radical ear surgery. In the elderly and senile age, the walls of the ear canal collapse due to the loss of their elasticity, which leads to
- Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
There is no reliable data on the incidence of adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus, but it is proved that the risk of the disease increases in this case by 20-40 times. Presumably, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are similar to those in colon cancer - chronic damage to the epithelium and cell proliferation lead to genetic rearrangements and, ultimately, to the neoplastic process.
- Peptic ulcer of the esophagus
- A variety of esophagitis, often combined with cholelithiasis and gastroduodenal ulceration, accompanied by cardiac insufficiency, due to the cup of the entire hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Diagnostic criteria 1) Pain behind the sternum, worse after eating, when swallowing, in a prone position; 2) dysphagia; 3) heartburn, belching, regurgitation of gastric contents; 4) complications:
- Esophageal anesthesia
General information Operations on the esophagus are performed for tumors, gastroesophageal reflux and motor disorders (achalasia). Operations include endoscopy, dilatation of the esophagus, cervical esopha-homiotomy, open or thoracoscopic distal esophagomyotomy, esophagectomy and resection of the esophagus "en block". Among esophageal tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, less commonly adenocarcinoma,
- Esophagus research methods
Along with the well-known subjective methods of research (clarification of the circumstances of the development of the pathological condition, analysis of complaints, etc.), in the study of the esophagus, the most significant are two methods of objective research: radiation (X-ray) and esophagoscopic. The main indication for the study of the esophagus is a violation of its function - i.e. certain violations
1. What symptom is most often observed in diseases of the esophagus? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation is a passive, retrograde movement of swallowed food to the upper sphincter of the esophagus; as a rule, food does not have time to get into the stomach. Most often, regurgitation occurs as a result of a violation of the motility of the esophagus, obstruction of the esophagus or asynchronous
- Esophagus DIVERTICULES
- blindly ending process or protrusion of the organ. LINKER DIVERTICULES - localized along the back wall of the pharynx and esophagus. Classification of diverticulums of the esophagus, diverticulitis (according to Yusbasic, 1961) By localization: 1. Pharyngo-esophagic (Tsenker), 2. Bifurcation. 3. Epiphrenal. Largest diverticulum: Stage I - protrusion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus
The esophagus (esophagus) is a cylindrical tube 25-30 cm long that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It begins at the level of the VI cervical vertebra, passes through the chest cavity, diaphragm and flows into the stomach to the left of the X-XI thoracic vertebra. There are three parts of the esophagus: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The cervical part is located between the trachea and the spine at the level of the VI cervical and up to the II chest
- Esophagus Features
The esophagus in young children has a fusiform shape, it is narrow and short. In a newborn, its length is only 10 cm, in children in 1 year of life - 12 cm, in 10 years - 18 cm. Its width, respectively, is 7 years old - 8 mm, in 12 years - 15 mm. There are no glands on the mucous membrane of the esophagus. It has thin walls, poor development of muscle and elastic tissue, and is well supplied with blood.
- Benign tumors of the esophagus
Classification 1. Solitary myomyomas. - acquired neoplasia. 2. Knotty-multiple myomyomas. 3. Common leiomyomatosis 4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc. 5. Cysts. Diagnostic criteria Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus. Examples of diagnosis: 1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus. 2. Nodose-multiple myomas of the esophagus. 3.
- Esophagus (problems)
The esophagus is the part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the stomach. The esophagus passes through the neck, chest and diaphragm. The following diseases are characteristic of it; DIVERTICULITIS, HERNIA, OR CONGENITAL DEFECTS. Pain in the esophagus can be caused by a foreign object in it or the sensation that a foreign object is in it. Since the esophagus is the beginning of the digestive tract,
The normal esophagus is a hollow, well-stretched muscle tube extending from level VI of the cervical vertebra to level XI or XII of the thoracic vertebrae. These levels correspond to the transition of the pharynx to the esophagus and esophageal-gastric connection. In newborns, the esophagus has a length of 10-12 cm, and in adults - 23-25 cm. There are three anatomical narrowing of the esophagus, which lasts for
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus
The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. The esophagus is a flattened anteroposterior tube 24-25 cm long. Three sections are distinguished in the esophagus: 1. Cervical. 2. Thoracic. 3. The abdominal. In the cervical and early thoracic