the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

WATER AND MINERAL EXCHANGE

Water is an important part of any cell, the liquid base of the blood and lymph. In humans, the water content in different tissues is not the same. For example, in adipose tissue it is about 10%, in bones - 20, in the kidneys - 83, in the brain - 85, in the blood —90%, which averages 70% of body weight.

Water in the body performs a number of important functions. Many chemicals are dissolved in it, it actively participates in metabolic processes, with which metabolic products are excreted from the body. Water has a high heat capacity and thermal conductivity, which contributes to the processes of thermoregulation.

The bulk of the water is contained inside the cells, in the blood plasma and in the intercellular space.

An adult in normal conditions consumes about 2.5 liters of water per day. In addition, about 300 ml of metabolic water, as one of the end products of energy exchange, is formed in the body. In accordance with the needs of a person during the day loses about 1.5 liters of water in the form of urine, 0.9 liters by evaporation through the lungs and skin (without sweating) and approximately 0.1 liters with feces. Thus, the exchange of water under normal conditions does not exceed 5% of body weight per day. Increased body temperature and high-calorie foods contribute to the release of water through the skin and lungs, increase its consumption.

Regulation of water metabolism is mainly controlled by the hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands.

Mineral substances enter the body with food and water. The body's need for mineral salts is different.
The main group includes seven elements: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine and magnesium. These are called macro elements. They are necessary for the formation of the skeleton (calcium, phosphorus) and for the osmotic pressure of biological fluids (sodium). These ions affect the physicochemical state of proteins, the normal functioning of excitatory structures (K +, Na +, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-), muscle contraction (Ca2 +, Mg2 +), energy storage (P5 +).

However, the body needs another 15 elements, the total number of which is less than 0.01% of body weight. They are called trace elements. Among them should be allocated iron (an integral part of hemoglobin and tissue cytochrome); cobalt (cyanocobalamin component); copper (component of cytochrome oxidase); zinc (factor potentiating the action of insulin on cell membrane permeability to glucose); molybdenum (xanthine oxidase component); manganese (activator of some enzyme systems); silicon (regulator of bone tissue collagen synthesis); fluorine (involved in the synthesis of bone structures and the strength of tooth enamel); iodine (an integral part of thyroid hormones), as well as nickel, vanadium, tin, arsenic, selenium, etc. In most cases it is an integral part of enzymes, hormones, vitamins or catalysts of their action on enzymatic processes.

The specific role of a number of inorganic ions in the life of the organism primarily depends on their properties: charge, size, ability to form chemical bonds, reactivity in relation to water.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

WATER AND MINERAL EXCHANGE

  1. The exchange of water and minerals
    The human body is 60% water. Adipose tissue contains 20% of water (from its mass), bones - 25, liver - 70, skeletal muscles - 75, blood - 80, brain - 85%. For the normal functioning of the body, which lives in a changing environment, it is very important the constancy of the internal environment of the body. It is created by blood plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, the main part of which is water, proteins and
  2. Water day - problems
    Can I have breakfast on the Water Day? Yes, if breakfast is a glass of hot water without anything. This is possible. And the whole day - only water, without any additives. Nose grows numb - what to do? Pugalka ordinary. You scare the body, and he scares you. Tell him that if he really wants to eat, you will give him porridge. And give out, if you really ask. Can you do without Water Day? I'm a nursing mother, and I'm afraid that
  3. Water and electrolyte balance water balance of the body
    The water balance of the body is maintained due to adequate flow of water in accordance with its losses. The body gets water from drinking, food and as a result of metabolic processes, and loses it with urine, feces, through the lungs and skin. The average amount of water consumed and emitted per day is 2.5 liters. In the form of drinking in the body should normally be 1300 ml, with food - 1000 ml, in the process
  4. WATER-ELECTROLYTIC BALANCE WATER BALANCE OF THE ORGANISM
    The water balance of the body is maintained due to adequate flow of water in accordance with its losses. The body gets water from drinking, food and as a result of metabolic processes, and loses it with urine, feces, through the lungs and skin. The average amount of water consumed and emitted per day is 2.5 liters. In the form of drinking in the body should normally be 1300 ml, with food - 1000 ml, in the process
  5. Liver, water, electrolyte balance and blood circulation
    - Based on the close links between the renin – angiotensin aldosterone (RAAS) system of the liver, great importance is attached to the regulation of water, electrolyte and acid – base balance, blood volume and blood pressure. The kidneys and adrenal glands are the places of formation of humoral factors (renin, aldosterone) and effect organs, and the liver occupies a key place in the RAAS participating in the synthesis
  6. AQUEAL AMMONIA (AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE, AMMONIUM WATER)
    GENERAL INFORMATION Empirical formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NH4ON Ammonia mass fraction,%. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . not less than 25 Molecular mass, kg / kmol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.05 State of aggregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  7. Minerals
    Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse: 1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein. 2. Mineral substances are part of all the extracellular and interstitial
  8. Mineral water
    Natural mineral waters are groundwater with different chemical composition, saturated with carbon dioxide and other gases. Water salinity varies from 1-2 g / l (table water) to 8-12 g / l (medicinal water). Some natural mineral waters contain a large number of trace elements - iron, bromine, iodine, giving the waters a certain flavor. Artificial mineral waters are obtained
  9. MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
    Modern research confirms the vital importance of mineral elements. New aspects of their biological action have been revealed, which made it possible to isolate a large group of biologically active substances - biomicroelements. The study of mineral substances as a necessary part of nutrition is closely connected with the prevention of the spread and elimination of a number of endemic diseases; endemic
  10. Clinical course and influence on water, electrolyte, acid-base and energy balance
    Depending on the severity of thermal damage, there are 4 degrees of burns. I degree: puffiness and redness - Combustio erythematosa II degree: blistering - Combustio bullosa. Grade III - tissue necrosis - Combustio gangrenosa (escharotica). To limit the I and II degrees of burn applied vital color - a sample with disulfin-blue. IIIa - superficial burn (damage
  11. Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
    Minerals are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant intake with food is necessary. The mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro-and micronutrients. ___________ __ conduction of nervous excitement to muscles Iron hematopoiesis (composed of hemoglobin, 60% of total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
  12. EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES AND ENERGY IN THE HUMAN BODY
    The metabolism proceeds continuously in all cells, tissues and systems of the body and helps to maintain vital activity and preserve the constancy of the internal environment. As a result of metabolic processes are formed substances necessary for the construction of cells and tissues. Through the metabolism is provided by the entry of energy necessary for his life, is restored
  13. Effect on the body, especially on water, electrolyte, acid-base and energy balance
    Dehydration up to shock A significant consequence of intestinal obstruction is the depletion of the body with fluid due to the redistribution of fluid and its accumulation in the intestine (6-8 l; Reissigl), in the intestinal wall and peritoneal peritoneum (edema of the intestinal wall 2-3 l; Reissigl), as well as further loss of fluid (peritonitis from leakage, vomiting or the expiration of gland secretions,
  14. The clinical picture of pancreatitis and the effect on the body, especially on water, electrolyte and acid-base balance
    There are 3 degrees of severity (Stock) I degree of severity (edematous form) Pain in the upper abdomen, slight protective muscle tension, facial flushing (false flushes). Enzymatic disorders (increased lipase, less specific increase in amylase). Rapid improvement under the influence of conservative treatment. Severe pains in the epigastric region are defined by patients as girdling, they
  15. Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
    Minerals and vitamins play a very important and at the same time peculiar role in the vital activity of the organism. First of all, they are not used as energy materials, which is a specific feature for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Another distinctive feature of these nutrients is the relatively very insignificant quantitative need for them in the body. Enough
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com