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SECONDARY ACUTE PNEUMONIA

HYPOSTATIC PNEUMONIA - focal pneumonia that occurs with prolonged stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation, developing against a background of heart disease or other chronic pathological processes that cause patients to stay in bed for a long time.

The clinic of such pneumonia is characterized by a sluggish course. The onset of the disease is hardly noticeable, without any particular complaints. Sharp weakness prevails, characterized by increased shortness of breath, sometimes a cough is added. Body temperature rises to subfebrile numbers, but often remains normal due to a decrease in the overall reactivity of the body. Leukocytosis is poorly expressed or absent.

The physical diagnosis of hypostatic pneumonia requires particularly close attention. Percussion should be both deep and superficial so as not to miss the foci of various sizes. Auscultatory symptoms are not always detected due to weakness of breathing and the serious condition of such patients. The most characteristic is a weakening of breathing and an insignificant amount of finely bubbled moist rales. X-ray detect gentle, cloudy, spotty blackouts in the lower parts of the lungs.

Pneumonia of such a genesis should be thought of in the case when a patient who is in bed suddenly worsens, there is a sharp weakness, shortness of breath, and especially an increase in body temperature. The course of such pneumonia is long.



ASPIRATED PNEUMONIA - due to the ingestion of any foreign substances (pieces of food, vomit, dental fillings, etc.) into the respiratory tract. The localization of the pneumatic focus depends on the position in which the patient was at the time of aspiration.
So, if the patient was sitting, the lower lobes of the lungs are affected, mainly on the right, if aspiration occurred in the supine position, in addition to the lower lobes, the posterior segments of the upper lung lobes are affected.

Often lobular pneumonia develops. The disease proceeds with clinical manifestations of limited bronchitis and reflex bronchospasm, wet cough and chest pain. Body temperature is always elevated, blunting of percussion sound, bronchial breathing, sonorous moist rales of various calibers are characteristic. An X-ray examination reveals foci of infiltration or extensive drainage dimming. Of the complications, atelectasis is most common. The disease is most often caused by pneumococci and streptococci.



PNEUMONIA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS - usually occur during exacerbation of the latter, especially in connection with a viral infection.

The clinical picture is polymorphic. A change in the symptoms of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis is characteristic: malaise increases, cough intensifies, chills are often noted, severe sweating of the neck and shoulders at night, the temperature rises significantly, sputum becomes purulent. With systematic observation, it is possible to trace the development of the inflammatory focus, the appearance of moist rales in a limited area, dullness of percussion sound can be very difficult to register, and pulmonary emphysema interferes. An important diagnostic criterion is an X-ray examination, which allows you to determine the appeared areas of infiltration. The most common pathogens are: pneumococci, hemophilic bacillus and staphylococcus.
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SECONDARY ACUTE PNEUMONIA

  1. Acute pneumonia.
    Acute pneumonia is a group concept used to refer to acute polyetiological infectious inflammatory lung diseases. Acute pneumonia refers to polyetiological diseases that have particular pathogenesis and a common clinical and morphological manifestations. The main morphological manifestation of acute pneumonia is the development of acute inflammation in the broncho-pulmonary system with
  2. Acute Complicated Pneumonia
    Pneumonia (pneumon - Greek "lung") is an acute, in most cases, infectious disease of the lungs, characterized by polyetiology, variability of the course from lungs to extremely severe, complicated forms. Pneumonia is divided into primary and secondary. Primary pneumonia means a disease that occurs in a child with previously healthy lungs and in the absence of diseases of others
  3. ACUTE PNEUMONIA
    Acute pneumonia is understood to mean acute exudative inflammatory processes of various etiologies and pathogenesis, localized in the parenchyma and intermediate lung tissue, often involving the vascular system. Pneumonia as a nosological form is said when the causative agent of the disease is a nonspecific pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic flora, and the main
  4. Acute pneumonia
    1. What is the synonym for croupous pneumonia: a) bronchopneumonia b) focal c) focal confluent d) segmental e) lobar Correct answer: d 2. What is the stage of croupous pneumonia? a) fibrinoid swelling Correct answer: in 3. The composition of the exudate in the 3 stages of croupous pneumonia: a) fibrin, red blood cells b) fibrin,
  5. Acute pneumonia
    Acute pneumonia is one of the most common childhood diseases. It is believed that the incidence of acute pneumonia is 10-30 per 1000 children. The high incidence of acute pneumonia in childhood is caused, firstly, by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the respiratory system in children, and secondly, by the characteristics of their immune system. Factors predisposing to
  6. ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS (PNEUMONIA)
    Acute pneumonia is a group of acute etiological, pathogenesis and morphological characteristics of acute infectious inflammatory diseases of the lungs with a primary lesion of the respiratory departments and the presence of intra-alveolar exudate. Most commonly caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses. According to clinical and morphological features, croupous (lobar) pneumonia is distinguished,
  7. Acute pneumonia in young children
    Questions for repetition: 1. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the lungs in children, contributing to the development of respiratory failure. 2. Respiratory failure, its types, degrees. Test questions: 1. The most common causative agents of pneumonia in children. 2. The mechanism of development of the main symptoms of pneumonia. 3. The modern classification of acute pneumonia in children. 4. The clinical characteristics of focal,
  8. Acute pneumonia in older children
    Questions for repetition: 1. Segmental structure of the lungs. 2. The main types of breathing. Control questions: 1. Etiology and pathogenesis of pneumonia in older children. 2. The clinical picture of focal, segmental and interstitial pneumonia in older children. 3. Clinical features of croupous pneumonia. 4. The main features of pneumonia in older children caused by various
  9. Acute inflammatory lung diseases (pneumonia)
    Among acute pneumonia, there are croupous (lobar), having the nature of an independent disease, and focal bronchopneumonia as a manifestation or complication of another disease. Croupous pneumonia is an acute infectious and allergic disease in which fibrinous inflammation seizes the lobe of the lung (lobar or lobar pneumonia) and its pleura (pleuropneumonia). Morphologically during
  10. Pneumonitis caused by food and vomit. Aspiration pneumonia
    ICD-10 code J69.0 Diagnosis Diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, respiratory rate and effectiveness, heart rate, blood pressure, CVP, body temperature, skin condition R-graph of chest organs ECG Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, formula blood count, total protein, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, electrolytes, enzymes, blood coagulation
  11. Acute psychotic conditions (acute psychoses)
    DIAGNOSTICS Acute psychotic conditions include conditions characterized by a rapid rate of deployment, variety and variability of psychopathological symptoms, confusion, brightness and saturation of affective disorders. With severe severity of the condition - sudden changes and fluctuations in symptoms, chaotic, unfocused, impulsive actions or behavior
  12. Pneumonia Acute pneumonia.
    In pregnant women, pneumonia often proceeds more severely due to a decrease in the respiratory surface of the lungs, high standing of the diaphragm, limiting lung excursion, and an additional burden on the cardiovascular system. The clinical picture of acute pneumonia is not different from that of non-pregnant. With the development of pneumonia shortly before childbirth, development should be delayed if possible
  13. Secondary tuberculosis
    SECONDARY TUBERCULOSIS (Fig. 110-183) - (reinfective, post-primary) develops in the lungs of an adult who has previously undergone a primary infection. The main pathway of progression is intracanalicular (bronchi, intestines), less often contact and hematogenous. In the pathogenesis of pulmonary foci of secondary T, preference is given to the endogenous theory of their origin: reactivation of foci of screening of the primary period
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