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MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE STOMACH CANCER OF THE STOMACH

takes first place and accounts for about 40% of all cancerous lesions.

Morphologically distinguish: exophytic tumors (grow in the lumen of the stomach and are delimited from healthy tissues); endophytic tumors (have infiltrative growth and malignant course).



International Classification of Gastric Cancer

The stomach is divided into three approximately equal parts: upper (proximal), middle (body of the stomach); lower (distal section).

The following notation is used to determine the features of the neoplastic process:

T (tumor) - features of the primary tumor;

T1 - a tumor of any size, affects only the mucous membrane or involves the submucosa;

T2.3 - tumors with correspondingly greater invasion;

T4 - tumors sprouting the entire thickness of the gastric wall; tumors spreading to neighboring organs.

N (nodulus) - regional lymph nodes located below the diaphragm;

Nx — no metaphases;

Nxa — metaphases only to the nearest nodes;

Nhv — more extensive lesions of the nodes that can be removed;

Nхс — unredeemable nodes along the aorta, mesenteric artery, iliac arteries;

M (metastasio) - distant metastases;

M0 - there are no distant metastases;

M1 - distant metastases are available.

4 stages of gastric cancer are distinguished with the flow:

1 - the tumor does not extend beyond the mucous membrane and does not have regional metastases;

2 - a large tumor, spreads to all walls of the stomach, except for serous; the stomach is mobile and not fused with the adjacent organs; single mobile metastases are available only in the nearest regional nodes;

3 - a tumor that grows through all layers of the wall of the stomach, fused with surrounding organs, with multiple regional metastases;

4 - a tumor of any size and spread; the presence of individual metastases.



Diagnostic criteria

Small diagnostic signs:

1) a change in well-being, the appearance of general weakness, fatigue, reduced ability to work; 2) mental depression; 3) a persistent decrease in appetite, sometimes its complete loss, an aversion to meat food; 4) "gastric discomfort": a feeling of fullness of the stomach, full of gas, a feeling of heaviness, sometimes soreness in the epigastric region; 5) progressive causeless emaciation, anemization, pallor of the skin.

Diagnostic signs of the manifestation of the disease:

1) palpation of a tumor-like formation in the epigastric region; metastatic lesions of the lymph nodes (Virchow gland, etc.);

2) the presence of metastatic lesions of other organs and systems (liver, lungs, bones, etc.).



Clinical Diagnosis Examples

1.
Gastric cancer, stage I, with a primary lesion of the upper part (T1, Nx, M0).

2. Gastric cancer, stage 2, with a primary lesion of the middle part (T2, Nxa, M0).
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MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE STOMACH CANCER OF THE STOMACH

  1. Stomach disease. Gastritis. Peptic ulcer. Tumors of the stomach.
    1. In acute gastritis, gastric mucosa develops 1. enterolization 2. coagulation necrosis 3. productive inflammation 4. exudative inflammation 5. proliferation of integumentary epithelium 2. Intestinal metaplasia of the epithelium can develop in chronic gastritis 1. superficial 3. atrophic 2. productive 4 Catarrhal 3. Macroscopic characteristics of acute gastric ulcer 1. edge
  2. Stomach cancer
    Stomach cancer usually occurs amid severe chronic gastritis. This is another example of the carcinogenic effect of oxygen radicals in inflammation. Gastric cancer is usually associated with a mutation of APC, K-RAS, p53 genes. Loss of heterozygosity with a high frequency is observed in the following chromosome regions: 17p (gene locus. P53), 5q (APC gene locus) and 18q (DCC gene locus.). With stomach cancer
  3. STOMACH CANCER
    Worldwide, gastric rock is one of the most common causes of death from malignant tumors. Symptoms at an early or curable stage are minimal or absent, and therefore patients go to the doctor too late and therefore only 15% of them survive 5 years, despite an increase in diagnostic capabilities and improvement of methods
  4. Tumors of the stomach.
    Tumors of the stomach, according to the WHO classification (2000), are divided into epithelial and non-epithelial. Epithelial tumors include: 1) intraepithelial neoplasia - adenoma; 2) carcinoma (cancer). All other (non-epithelial) tumors in the stomach are extremely rare. Epithelial tumors. Adenoma of the stomach. In the WHO tumor classification and in the Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial
  5. The structure and functions of the stomach are normal. Congenital malformations of the stomach
    As one of the most important digestive organs that perform secretory and endocrine functions, the stomach is divided into 5 main anatomical zones: cardia, bottom, body, vestibule and pylorus. Cardia (cardia) - a narrow part of the stomach surrounding the area of ​​the esophageal-gastric connection. The bottom (fundus) is the part of the stomach that rises somewhat on the left above the cardia and makes up about * / 3 of the organ. Body
  6. 32. INSPECTION OF THE ABDOMINAL, PALPATION, PERCUSSION OF THE STOMACH, PATHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE. METHODS OF STUDYING THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE STOMACH. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS.
    When examining, it is necessary to pay attention to its size, shape, symmetry, respiratory movements, peristalsis, and the condition of the abdominal wall. Percussion of the stomach: a low tympanic sound is usually determined, and high above the intestine. Percussed in the midline from the area of ​​intestinal tympanitis up and measure the distance from the navel. Auscultatory palpation: the socket is placed in the epigastric
  7. Tumors of the stomach
    As in other organs of the digestive canal, in frequency epithelial tumors of the stomach prevail over mesenchymal and stromal neoplasms. Polyps. The term "polyps" is used in relation to any exophytic node that rises above the surface of the gastric mucosa. A lipoma or leiomyoma arising in the wall of the stomach can go into the lumen of the organ and create a picture
  8. Benign Gastric Tumors
    formed as a result of inflammatory-reactive hyperplasia of the mucosa. Tumors are fibroepithelial, less commonly fibroids, fibroids, neuromas, angiomas, lipomas, hemangiomas. Polyps - conditionally benign tumors, are single or multiple formations located mainly in the antrum
  9. Therapeutic regimen for pain in the stomach, with weakness of the stomach and with various conditions of appetite
    Pain in the stomach Pain in the stomach arises either from a disorder of nature without matter, especially hot, burning, or from [frustration] in the presence of matter, especially hot and burning, or from a violation of continuity caused by [or] winds bursting or burning, or something combining both of these qualities, as happens with hot tumors; sometimes [disruption]
  10. TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATED MESENCHIMES
    TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVES
  11. Diseases of the stomach and intestines
    1. Definition of gastritis: a) degenerative disease of the gastric mucosa b) inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane c) dysregenerative disease of the gastric mucosa d) infectious disease with damage to the gastric mucosa e) precancerous disease of the stomach Correct answer: b 2. The essence of morphological changes in acute gastritis : a) exudative inflammation
  12. Stomach ulcer
    Gastric ulcer - this is more or less a deeper lesion of the gastric mucosa. An ulcer occurs due to a weakening of the natural resistance of the gastric mucosa to the aggressive effects of gastric acid. This weakening is caused by a lack of mucus, which prevents the stomach from digesting its own tissues. The ulcer is accompanied by spasmodic pain. See article
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