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Accentuations of the nature and behavior disorders of a teenager

As noted at the beginning of the chapter, the difficulties that adolescents experience are due, among other things, to its characterological features. We are talking about the so-called character accentuation, manifested in adolescence and affecting the behavior of adolescents.

Earlier, in connection with the analysis of the development of self-consciousness of a teenager’s personality, including such a component as the system of attitudes towards himself, it was concluded that the process of character formation in adolescence is incomplete. In this regard, the well-known children's psychoneurologist A.E. Lichko emphasizes that at this age the character as such has not yet been formed, and therefore it is better to speak only about its individual accentuated features.

Character accentuation is an extreme version of the norm, when a particular trait is excessively strong, which is why an individual becomes selectively vulnerable to certain psychogenic influences. Therefore, the consolidation of certain pathological traits prevents the adolescent from adapting to the environment and may be one of the reasons for his deviating behavior. It is not by chance that character accentuations are considered as prerequisites for deviating (deviant) behavior of adolescents. In any case, it is safe to say that it is accentuation that makes adolescence "difficult."

This raises the question of the prevalence of a particular type of accentuation among adolescents. In 1985, N.Ya.Ivanov character accentuation was recorded in 52-62% of socially adapted adolescents. In 1989, according to IA Gorkova, accentuation was noted in 97% of adolescents, and in 1994, in 96%. Thus, over the past 5 years there has been no change in the prevalence of accentuation. Moreover, they really became a characteristic feature of adolescence. It is interesting to note that in terms of the extent of accentuation, socially-adapted adolescents became equal to adolescent offenders, including adolescents with pronounced accentuations in 1989. was 96%, and in 1994 - 100%.

The leading types of accentuations among socially adapted adolescents are hyperthymic - 26%, schizoid - 19%, labile - 15% and epiletoid - 13%, and among teenage deviants: hyperthymic - 35%, epileptoid - 25% and schizoid - 21% 3 . Thus, although character accentuations are an integral characteristic of adolescence, there is a certain specificity in their distribution among socially adapted adolescents and offenders. In the latter, epileptoid type dominates in comparison with law-abiding.

The results of the study of the prevalence and severity of character accentuations in 14–15 year old adolescents using the questionnaire by H. Smiszek, undertaken by us in 1995–1997, revealed the following (see Table 14).

Table 14

Characteristics of the severity and prevalence of character accentuation among adolescents

From the data presented it can be seen that between boys and girls there are differences in the severity of six out of ten accentuations. In comparison with boys, girls are more emotional, more exalted, show a greater demonstrativeness in behavior, and boys are more anxious, unstable and distracting. A qualitative analysis shows that most accentuations — emotive, exalted, anxious, and dysthymic — relate to temperament, and only two — demonstrative and unbalanced — to character. Thus, differences in the degree of accentuation in adolescent accentuation are based on the type of temperament and, to a lesser extent, on the type of character.

Analysis of the prevalence of accentuations in adolescents shows that they are most widely represented in the group of girls. If girls are the most common types of emotive, exalted, hyperthymic and cyclotypic types of accentuations, then in boys they are hyperthymic, cyclotyme and exalted types. Common is the connection of accentuation with temperament, as well as the fact that, during adolescence, the most common, regardless of gender, are hyperthymic, cyclothymic and exalted types of accentuation. Typically female accentuations in adolescence can be called emotive, exalted and hyperthymic types, because they are most common and pronounced, and typically masculine - hyperthymic, cyclotyme, excitable and anxious types. It is interesting to note that at the age of 14-15 years, the level of anxiety and imbalance of boys is significantly higher than that of girls.

Atypical for adolescence are dysthymic, unstable and pedantic types of accentuations. This means that, in general, adolescents are not characterized by depression, pessimism, apathy (distyme type), or “getting stuck” on some supervaluable idea, principle or developed sense of duty (unstable, stuck type).

Above we have already noted the possibility of a link between individual character accentuations and manifestations of antisocial behavior by adolescents.
In tab. 15 presents data on the severity and prevalence of accentuation among law-abiding and deviant teenage boys.

No significant differences were found between law-abiding teenagers and teenage deviants in the degree of accentuation of their character. Along with this, among the deviants, in comparison with law-abiding, hyperthymic, anxious and emotive types of accentuations are much less represented. That is, among the deviants, there are far less sociable, energetic teenagers

Table 15

Characteristics of the severity and prevalence of character accentuation among teenagers-deviants and law-abiding teenagers

and optimistic (hypertime type), timid, anxious, fearful (anxious type), emotionally sensitive, soft and sympathetic (emotive type). By themselves, these personality traits can hardly be considered as significant determinants of deviant behavior. But in combination with other personal parameters (for example, self-consciousness), they can become prerequisites for the formation of aggressive, illegal behavior and reinforcement of deviant personality traits.

Characteristics of adolescence, we began with a description of his myths, common among adults. My goal was to debunk these myths with the help of modern scientific psychological knowledge about this period of development. These ideas, it seems to me, contribute to the dispelling of mythological views

and building a realistic view- What are its main components?

1. Adolescence is not a time of pathology. This is a normal and absolutely necessary period of human development. Most teenagers cope with all age problems. Proof of this, we are adults, including the readers of this book.

2. No period in a person’s life (except prenatal) is characterized by such a rapid pace of development as adolescence. There can be a gap of 6 years between a fast-paced girl and a slowly developing boy. Equally great are the differences in the mental, emotional and social development of adolescents.

3. Yes, some teenagers are still children, but many (especially sexually) are already adults.

4. Any development of a teenager (physical, emotional, mental, or personal) does not occur synchronously, but unevenly and heterochronically. Well-developed physically boys and girls are not always and not necessarily just as well developed mentally and emotionally. Children with physical or sexual developmental delays, on the contrary, cannot be ready to perform serious duties along with adults.

5. Adolescence is a transitional, crisis period in a person’s life and is characterized by its own characteristics. Do not exaggerate the problems and difficulties, as well as downplay them. Adults do not have the right to abstract from these problems. On the contrary, his task, knowing the peculiarities of the adolescent, is to help him in creating the conditions for an independent and successful resolution of these problems and difficulties.


Stages of formation of self-consciousness in childhood and adolescence

Let's sum up. Throughout the book, I tried to show the process of personality formation from birth to early adolescence. The most important element of this development is the formation of its self-consciousness. If in infancy the biological and physical separation from the mother became the first fact of becoming self-awareness, then in early childhood the fact of self-awareness of the child and gender-role identity became the fact of self-awareness. The next step in the development of self-awareness was the formation of the inner position of the child in preschool childhood and the arbitrariness of behavior in the early school years. And finally, as a teenager, we saw two stages of becoming

self-awareness, one of which is inherent in younger adolescents, and the other in older adolescents. Figure 21 presents in schematic form the steps described above. Describing them, one should always remember the child’s leading activity in each of them, which causes the movement forward, as well as the changing nature of the relationship between the child and adults (social development situation), the disregard of which leads to the emergence of conflict relations between the child and adults, and as a result this - to slow the pace of mental development.
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Accentuations of the nature and behavior disorders of a teenager

  1. Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. A sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in military personnel
    Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in
  2. The nature and types of his accentuation
    Character is a set of stable personality traits that determine the attitude of a person towards people towards the work performed. Character manifests itself in activity and communication and includes that which gives a person’s behavior a specific, characteristic shade. The main problems of characterology are the establishment of types of character in order to predict human behavior in various situations.
  3. Character accentuation
    Doctors and psychologists of the hospital noted that the wounded at the initial stage of treatment had some character accentuations: heightened situational anxiety, alertness and suspicion, reduced ability to control their emotions and the need for group support. The observed phenomenon can be characterized as a response of the individual to an extreme situation of injury, which
  4. Typological models of character accentuation and psychopathy
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  5. Accentuations of character. Classification according to Leonard, Licko. Typological characteristic. Medical and pedagogical correction
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  6. Mental health rights. Character accentuation
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  7. Analysis of the impact of character accentuation on personal professional growth
    To analyze the influence of character accentuation on the professional growth of a person, we reviewed the biography of Russian writer Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol (1809-1852). N.V. Gogol was born in the town of Great Sorochintsy of the Mirgorod district of the Poltava province in the family of a landowner. The mother showed great concern for the religious upbringing of her son, who, however, was influenced not so much by the ceremonial
  8. Typological models of characters in modern psychology. Approaches to the definition of accentuations
    The first attempt to classify characters belongs to Plato (4th century BC), who created a typology of characters based on ethical principles (man - worker, man - warrior and sage - philosopher). After Plato in ancient Greek literature, the problem of characters was Aristotle's disciple Theophrastus. His classification of the types then prevalent in Athenian society, many
  9. Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in young soldiers
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  10. Specific features of the psyche and behavior of adolescents
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  11. “Conceptual bases of psychological and acmeological support of adolescents with delinquent behavior”
    In the 6th chapter of the thesis materials are presented on the substantiation of directions, conditions and recommendations for improving the system of psychological and acmeological support of adolescents with a delinquent behavior. It also presents a structural-functional model and substantiates the principles of psychological and acmeological support for the socialization of adolescents with delinquent behavior.
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  13. "Theoretical and methodological foundations of psychological and acmeological support of adolescents with delinquent behavior"
    The first chapter of the thesis presents the literature review materials that reflect the theoretical foundations of the problem of deviant and delinquent behavior, its thesaurus and essence, the relationship with the personality development of the delinquent adolescent, the etiology of delinquent behavior is addressed, the topic of determining factors of delinquent development and
  14. "Essential components, mechanisms and technologies of psycho-acmeological support of adolescents with delinquent behavior"
    The fifth chapter of the thesis presents the results of a study on the system analysis of the essential components of the organization of psychological and acmeological support of adolescents with delinquent behavior. Psychological and acmeological mechanisms are disclosed, the program and technologies of psychological and acmeological support for socialization of adolescents with delinquent behavior are described. Based
  15. The results of psychological and acmeological diagnosis of socio-psychological characteristics of adolescents with delinquent behavior in a specialized enterprise
    The third chapter of the thesis presents the materials of theoretical analysis and the results of empirical research on the description of the psychological and social portrait of adolescents working at the sites of the specialized enterprise “New Generation”; psychological-acmeological manifestations of leisure activity in adolescents with delinquent behavior; psychological and acmeological features
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    The psychological portrait of a teenager would obviously be incomplete if there is no such important detail as aggression in him. Unfortunately, in recent years there has been a significant increase in both the aggressiveness of adolescents and their manifestations of unlawful behavior. According to I.A.Gorkova for the period from 1989 to 1996. increase in the number of adolescents with increased aggressiveness among their peers with asocial
  18. Belov VG. Psychological and acmeological accompaniment of adolescents with delinquent behavior: concept, model, technology, 2010
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  19. Types of accentuation
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  20. Examination paper. Basics of Acmeology - Acme. Accentuation. Acmeogram, 2010
    The work includes the solution of three tasks: 1) Isolation of acme in the professional activity of a person (using the example of A. Einstein’s professional path); 2) Analysis of the impact of character accentuation on the professional growth of a person (by the example of N. V. Gogol); 3) Acmeogram (specialty -
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