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An experiment as a method of empirical research

The experiment involves the active intervention of the researcher in the subject's activity in order to create conditions in which a psychological fact is revealed. The researcher deliberately creates and changes the conditions under which the human activity proceeds, sets goals and judges the psychological characteristics of the test subject based on the results.

Allocate laboratory and natural experiment. A laboratory experiment is conducted under intentionally created conditions, using special equipment; the subject's actions are determined by the instruction. In a laboratory experiment, especially strict control of dependent and independent variables is carried out. The disadvantage of a laboratory experiment is the extreme difficulty of transferring the results to real-life conditions.

The idea of ​​a natural experiment was put forward by A.F. Lazursky (1874-1917), who called for in-depth development of new forms of psychological experiment1. To organize a natural experiment, it is necessary, according to Lazursky, to solve the problem of choosing such types of activities in which typical or individual characteristics of the subjects would be particularly characteristic. After that, a model of activity is created that is very close to those activities that are usual for the participants. For example, a natural experiment in a kindergarten group is often built in the form of a didactic game.

An experimental study can be constructive and formative. A stating experiment is aimed at identifying the present level of a psychological phenomenon or quality. An example of a stating experimental study is a test examination of children's intelligence, carried out using various methods (test A. Binet, Wexler test, STUR, etc.). In foreign psychology, learning research is usually contrasted with educational research1.
The method of a training experiment is based on a comparison of the results of subjects, initially similar in all respects, but differing in the amount of experience gained by the groups in the learning process, which allows us to put forward a more meaningful hypothesis about factors influencing development.

The emergence of the formative experiment method in Russian psychology is associated with the name L.S. Vygotsky 3. The idea of ​​a formative (or experimental-genetic, genetic-modeling, training) study is to artificially recreate (simulate) the process of mental development. The goal is to study the conditions and patterns of the origin of a particular mental neoplasm.

The task is to form a new ability for the test subject. The researcher theoretically outlines and empirically selects the appropriate ways and means to achieve the desired result, trying to achieve pre-"planned" indicators of ability formation.

The experimental model of formation causally explains progress and reveals the mechanisms of qualitative leaps in mastering this ability. If the formation naturally, repeatingly leads to the desired result (subject to the identified conditions and means), it is concluded that it was possible to penetrate into the internal essence of the development of this ability.

The formation of sound altitude sensitivity as a kind of sensory ability of a person (A.N. Leontyev), the formation of attention ability in younger schoolchildren as an action of internal control (P.Ya. Halperin, S.G. Kobylnitskaya) 2.
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An experiment as a method of empirical research

  1. An experiment as a normative method of empirical testing of psychological hypotheses
    The objectives of psychological research: theoretical, applied, practical. The development of experimental psychology and the differentiation of concepts of the method and research technique. Method as a way to collect data. An experiment as one of the ways of knowing reality and as a means of “limiting” theorizing, as a normative logic of reflection and as an art of verification
  2. Experiment as a research method
    Acmeology as a relatively young science is developing its own methodological tools - a set of methods and techniques that are adequate to its subject and tasks. One of the directions of this work is the creation of experimental acmeology, involving the use of experimental methods in acmeological research. The subject of study in acmeology is the process
  3. Experiment as a research method
    Acmeology as a relatively young science is developing its own methodological tools - a set of methods and techniques that are adequate to its subject and tasks. One of the directions of this work is the creation of experimental acmeology, involving the use of experimental methods in acmeological research. The subject of study in acmeology is the process
  4. Observation and experiment as the main research methods in developmental psychology
    The main research methods of developmental psychology and developmental psychology are methods of collecting facts, ascertaining trends, and the dynamics of mental development that unfolds over time. At the initial stage of the development of child psychology (in the second half of the XIX - beginning of the X X centuries), it was primarily a method of observation. Researchers (including biologists and psychologists T. Tideman, I. Ten,
  5. An experiment in a system of psychological research methods
    Organization of psychological research. Classifications of psychological research methods (classical taxonomy, timely taxonomy). The method of observation and the postulate of immediacy. Types of psychological observation. Monitoring subjective factors in observer reports. Observation techniques in experimental schemes. Types of empirical data in psychological
  6. Empirical base of research
    A sample of the study was composed of graduate students, students of the continuing education system, teachers of higher educational institutions in the city of Stavropol (North Caucasus State Technical University; Financial and Economic Institute; North Caucasus Social Institute, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute). In a pilot study took
  7. Experiment method
    An experiment in a profession is also used to verify a pre-compiled psychogram. For this purpose, several groups of specialists with different professional success stand out. In each group, with the help of special devices or forms, the qualities recognized in the psychogram as professionally important are checked. The results of the study are compared with indicators of professional
  8. Empirical base of research
    In total, the study involved 341 people - government employees who acted as experts (2004 - 2007), including: in an empirical study - 315 government employees studying at the Russian Presidential Academy of Public Administration, in a pilot study –26 government employees Administration of the Samara region. Reliability and reliability
  9. Correlation of theory, experiment and practice in the process of military psychological research
    This problem reflects the implementation by military psychologists of the most important principle of psychology - the principle of the unity of theory, experiment and practice, the significance of which is shown by B.F. Lomov. This principle is briefly formulated by K.K. Platonov: "... An experiment, being justified by a theory, checks and refines it and, together with it being tested by practice as the highest criterion of truth, serves it, improving it." Violation
  10. Empirical study design
    Essential for developmental psychology is the organization (construction) of empirical research. The method of slicing is most specific in relation to the tasks of developmental psychology. The method of slices as a whole is a statement (measurement) of the state of the object at different stages of its development. A cross-sectional study can be organized in two ways: according to the principle
  11. Empirical base and sources of research
    In the work on the dissertation, the author relied on materials from state statistics, departmental reporting data, and the results of psychological studies of domestic and foreign psychologists. In the process of performing the dissertation work, the study of documents, materials of conferences, seminars and round tables was used. The basis of the empirical base of the study is the results
  12. Empirical base of research
    A sample of the study was 380 people, of which: 187 - teachers of Moscow schools, 159 - students, 34 - teachers of pedagogical universities. The reliability and reliability of the study was provided by the initial methodological principles, theoretical validity, diversity and reliability of the methods used, representativeness of the sample, mathematical processing
  13. Empirical base and stages of research
    The study involved employees of enterprises and organizations of various industries of the Sverdlovsk region (education, metallurgy, services, trade), owners and heads of organizations, managerial personnel, specialists of various profiles in Yekaterinburg and the Sverdlovsk region. The total number of respondents was 4001 people. An empirical study has been conducted for 10 years.
  14. Empirical base and stages of research
    The empirical basis of the study is a sample of 2282 specialists in various fields of activity: the administration of the Stupinsky district of the Moscow region - 13 people .; construction company "TODESiK" (Podolsk) - 38 people; A-Line Consulting Agency - 47 people; Personnel Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation - 23 people; employees of medical institutions - 114 people .; spheres
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