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Formation of the social orientation of the personality of a teenager

The life of a teenager in a well-organized school team ensures the formation of his collectivist personality.

The orientation of the individual is the result of the person having a certain structure of his motivational sphere. In the process of life, such motives are gradually formed in the child, which acquire the leading meaning for him and thereby subdue all his other motives. The presence of persistently dominant motives for the behavior and activity of the child creates the orientation of his personality.

The structure of the motivational sphere of a person is complex and multifaceted. From this point of view, one can speak of the prevailing motives that create the orientation of the individual in various spheres of his life and activity. For example, you can talk about the prevailing interests of a person in the field of science, art, profession, or in the field of relationships with others. You can also talk about the prevailing interests of children of different ages: for the game - for preschoolers, for learning - for younger schoolchildren, for the future profession - for older schoolchildren.

However, the most profound, fundamental for the moral characteristics of the individual is the characteristic of its orientation from the point of view of a person’s attitude to himself and to society. This kind of orientation is very essential for the formation of the whole personality of the child as a whole. It determines not only the basic moral characterization of the child, but also many other features of his behavior and activity.

In our laboratory in recent years, M.S. Neumark has developed a method that makes it possible, with sufficient objectivity, to determine the orientation of the student’s personality, i.e., to reveal the real motives of his behavior. At the same time, the technique of M. S. Neumark makes it possible to detect not only the motives by which the child consciously guided, but also those that determine his behavior regardless of his consciousness and will.

When designing this technique, the author relied on the well-known fact in psychology that the motives of activity exert an involuntary influence on the nature of its flow; in particular, they affect the accuracy of perception. Based on this, the author decided to identify the dominant motives of the teenager (that is, his focus on his personal interests, on self-affirmation or on the interests of other people, the interests of the team) through perception errors that occur under the influence of experimentally modified motives.

As an activity of perception, the definition on the eye of the length of lines (from 15 to 125 mm) applied on the cards was used. The schoolboy had to look at the line (within 2 seconds), and then reproduce its length with a pencil on paper.

In order to provide an experimental change in motivation, the determination of the accuracy of the eye gauge was included as an integral element in a very attractive game for teenagers - competition. Determining the length of lines in different series of experiments was associated with different tasks arising from the game and therefore were motivated differently. In one series, to determine the motives of self-assertion, an experiment on the accuracy of the eye was included in the competition for the individual championship. In another series, the same experiment was included in the group championship competition, which made it possible to reveal the strength of the social motive.

The strength of this or that motive from different schoolchildren was judged by the magnitude of the mistakes that a schoolchild made in these series.

Finally, in the decisive series, a sharp conflict was created between two motives — personal and public. This series made it possible to definitively establish dominance in the personality of a teenager of one or another motive and, therefore, to determine the personality orientation characteristic of him. (For a detailed description of this technique, see the published articles by M. S. Neimark)

According to the methodological principle of MS S. Neymark, other similar methods are being developed both in our laboratory and outside it. In our laboratory, V.E. Chudnovsky develops a technique in which the dominant motives of students are revealed by means of changes in the reaction rate.

At the Izhevsk Pedagogical Institute, P. L. Gorfunsel found a variant of the method, which makes it possible to study the dominance of motifs in the conditions of student sports competitions [54].

Finally, and this is the most interesting, TE Konnikova and her staff have developed a number of teaching methods that allow you to explore the manifestation of the orientation of students in the conditions of their daily educational and social activities. One of these techniques is a series of tests in several (three or four) academic subjects that students perform under certain conditions.

At the first stage of the experiment, the usual test work is carried out, and the marks obtained by each student are put in a class journal. Here the motive is the desire of everyone to get the highest mark for themselves.

At stage II (after 6–8 days), the class is given another work on the subject of the same degree of difficulty and volume, but children are warned that the grades will not be put into the journal individually, but will serve to determine the average grade point as an indicator of its total readiness and comparison with other classes. This made it possible to reveal the power of social motive.

At the third stage of the experiment (after another 6–8 days), the students performed a test in an acute situation of a collision between two motives — personal and public. The collision of these two motives was ensured by the following construction of experience. The students were offered four tasks, including two lighter and two more difficult. For the solution of two tasks, the grade was put in the student’s journal (as in the first control), for the other two tasks, the evaluation was used to determine the grade point average (as in the second control). At the same time, each student was given the right to choose the tasks for which an assessment will go to him personally, and those which he intends to give in favor of the average grade point. The experiment was conducted in several subjects of a different cycle - natural, mathematical, humanitarian.

The behavior of the subjects at the third stage of the experiment shows with great expressiveness that in this experience, in the context of the student’s usual daily activities, it was possible to create a genuine conflict of differently directed motivational tendencies. Observation shows that some students in a state of great excitement and confusion corrected their choice of task “for the team” and “for themselves” several times if they saw that one of the tasks would receive a lower grade than the other.

We attach great importance to the development of experimental methods for identifying the orientation of a person, because by observing students it is very difficult to find out the reasons for which the child is coming in one way or another. It often happens that a student who willingly performs public assignments, helps the teacher and even his comrades, in fact, acts in this way, guided by personal egoistic motives, for example, the desire to advance among his comrades or to win a good attitude towards his teachers.

Using the described techniques, their authors conduct research revealing the psychological essence of orientation, its role in shaping the child’s personality, identify the directional characteristics of the personality of adolescents, and make attempts to reveal conditions conducive to the formation of the social orientation of the personality of schoolchildren. All of these studies are still in preliminary development. Therefore, we will not dwell on their characteristics here. We can only say that even now some preliminary data suggests that the social orientation of an individual characterizes the entire sphere of their needs and aspirations, the system of its relations to reality, to other people and to itself. Moreover, these data confirm the thought of A. S. Makarenko that in the personality structure of a collectivist person any quality of personality, any feature of his character has a different content and a different form of manifestation, than in the structure of personality of a human individualist. Yes, and the totality of these features themselves, as the preliminary data of M. S. Neumark show, is different for schoolchildren with different orientations of personality.

As a result of all the research of orientation, it can be considered established that in adolescence most schoolchildren show a fairly stable prevalence of either a personal motive or a public one.

It was also revealed that in those classes in which the experiments were carried out both by M.S. Neymark herself (in Moscow) and T.E. Konnikova (in Leningrad), a significant number of students turned out to be dominated by personal motives, i.e. on self-affirmation.

This fact makes one wonder whether such a personality orientation is an age feature of adolescent students, or whether there are mistakes made in their upbringing. Indeed, in the work on age psychology, the idea is often expressed that adolescence in general tends to assert itself in children. (We will dwell on this issue a little bit later, but now we only indicate that this provision, in our opinion, is erroneous.) Or maybe the social orientation is generally formed only in adolescence and a large number of adolescents with a personal focus is a phenomenon or less normal?

However, we have experimental data that show that even children of primary school age are able to suppress their immediate interests and desires and act completely independently in the interests of other people.

These data were obtained in the study of L. S. Slavina, who studied the responsibility of younger schoolchildren in the performance of public assignments. In this study, the experimenter suggested that small schoolchildren, keen on the game, do a little work — cut and paste cardboard boxes for kindergarten children with colored paper. Previously it was established that these children prefer the game to such cardboard work. At the same time, schoolchildren were given a completely free choice. Not only were they not forced to make squares, but they even made it easier for them to refuse, warning them that they could do what they wanted. Yet in this situation, many children (almost half of the subjects), abandoning the game and very entertaining toys, were taken for making small squares. There were, of course, such children who preferred the game, but in these cases they considered it necessary to justify themselves: “I really want to play toys”, “There are other guys, they will do it”, etc. It should be noted that the schoolchildren who donated an interesting game for the sake of a socially necessary business, they then always wondered how the kindergarten children met their work: were they happy with their gift; how they played with them, etc.

These data suggest that the social orientation of the individual begins to take shape long before adolescence in first-grade children, and according to some data and considerations of A. N. Leontiev (which we expounded describing the motivational sphere of older preschoolers), may occur even earlier.

Thus, the data obtained on a significant number of adolescents who are inclined to act under the influence of self-affirmation motives that can ignore the interests of comrades for the sake of their personal interests indicate poor educational work in schools where the experimental studies presented here were conducted. This conclusion is also confirmed by other facts obtained in the study, namely by the fact that adolescents with a focus on self-affirmation are more often found among the so-called asset than among all the other (“ordinary”) team members.

However, the schools in which these studies were conducted were by no means considered the worst in the area. Therefore, we have the right to assume that the results obtained are not random and to a certain extent characterize the work of many of our schools.

An analysis of the current theory and practice of raising children in a team, carried out by us together with TE Konnikova, allows us to understand the roots of those parenting mistakes that contribute to the formation of the personal orientation of our adolescents.

Among Soviet teachers, the principle of upbringing in a collective is generally accepted. The significance of the collective for the communist upbringing of the younger generation was clearly shown in the pedagogical works of N. K. Krupskaya, and in the work of A. S. Makarenko this position was further elaborated and put into practice. Both N. K. Krupskaya and A. S. Makarenko insistently emphasized the idea that education in a team is not just one of the principles of Soviet education, which has value along with its other principles, but also a qualitatively new approach in solving pedagogical tasks, which is fundamentally distinguishes communist education from bourgeois-individualistic.

However, not all teachers have the role of the collective in shaping the child’s personality in this way.
Often the team is considered only as a means of facilitating the work of the teacher, or as one of the means of education, along with others. Therefore, in textbooks and in books on pedagogy, the question of organizing a group of students in a school is often confined to a separate chapter, and all other chapters and even a chapter on the moral education of students are presented as if the principle of forming a child’s personality in a collective is only indirectly related to them. Meanwhile, N. K. Krupskaya, citing the words of V. I. Lenin that the principle of each person’s interest in the well-being of other people should be the most important principle of people's relations under socialism, says that these words “already give a clear attitude to the whole educational problem our time. It is necessary to educate collectivists from children ”[94, p. 122]. At the same time, N. K. Krupskaya repeatedly emphasized that collectivism is not just some one, even if very important, personality trait. Both she and A. S. Makarenko in all her utterances and pedagogical essays develops the idea that the education of a collectivist is the education of a person who is special in her appearance, with a completely defined moral code and moral qualities corresponding to it.

But if this is so, then the formation of such a person can not be carried out in isolation, outside the behavior and activities of the child in a certain way organized by the children's team.

Hence it is clear why Soviet pedagogy, with its most important principle, put forward the upbringing of children in a team, as well as the requirement of educating the children’s collective itself as a social environment that has a direct influence on the formation of the whole personality of the child as a whole. Consequently, a correct understanding of the principle of raising a child in a collective and through a collective must radically change the entire content and all methods of education.

The insufficiently deep understanding of the role of the collective for the comprehensive formation of the personality of the child also exists among psychologists1. Interestingly, in his time, P. P. Blonsky, trying to assert the value of the collective for raising a child, cites psychological data showing how children's performance, memory, attention, and even physical strength increase in the team. That was what seemed to him the most convincing psychological proof of the advantages of collective education over the individual. Of course, since P. Blonsky wrote, almost half a century has passed, but even now the understanding of the true meaning of the collective for the formation of the child’s personality is limited in psychology. It is usually assumed that as a result of collective activity in children, very important, but still only some features directly connected with this activity are formed, for example friendship, companionship, ability to act together, organizational skills, etc. But neither in psychological literature, nor Moreover, psychological research has not yet revealed its position that any quality of a person acquires its own special content and structure, depending on the system For the child to the reality it was formed. This implies that education, which forms children's collectivist traits, is possible only through the organization of their life and work in a team.

The theoretical underestimation of the role of the collective also affects the practice of educational work, leading, apparently, to the formation of an individualistic orientation of the personality among adolescents and especially among the “leaders” of the children's collective.

First of all, it should be noted that we often call any group of schoolchildren united by a common cause as a team. Такое понимание коллектива разоружает учителей и воспитателей, так как они начинают считать, что их класс является коллективом уже в силу того, что дети собраны вместе и учатся в одном классе. В результате многие формы работы проводятся с учащимися так, если бы они представляли собой уже достаточно хорошо воспитанный коллектив: избираются (иногда назначаются) органы самоуправления, выдвигается актив, школьники выполняют общественные поручения, возникает система каких-то коллективных воздействий и коллективных оценок. Однако по существу это может оказаться совсем не тот коллектив, о котором говорили Н. К. Крупская и который практически создавал А. С. Макаренко. Подростки в настоящих коллективах должны быть объединены обязательно какой-либо общественно значимой и вместе с тем увлекательной для каждого члена коллектива деятельностью. В этом случае каждый школьник, добиваясь стоящей перед коллективом цели, чувствует себя участником совместной серьезной деятельности, в которой заинтересованы все его товарищи. Только в этом случае подростки почувствуют спаянность, у них возникнут совместные переживания, связанные с общими успехами, и огорчения по поводу общих неудач. Как показывают исследования (о которых мы говорили выше), только в такой действительно коллективной деятельности родится подлинное общественное мнение. В общей жизни и работе возникают необходимые и несомненные для каждого правила поведения, взаимная требовательность и оценка. Причем главное правило и главные требования — это соблюдать интересы коллектива. И, что очень важно, каждый подросток в таком коллективе принимает и эти требования и эти оценки как свои собственные; ведь он сам был их творцом и сам активно проводит их в жизнь. Таким образом, в правильно организованном детском коллективе воспитание вообще и воспитание коллективов, коллективной направленности в частности осуществляется не путем давления, а в каком-то смысле путем самовоспитания: каждый подросток является не только «объектом» педагогического воздействия, но и его «субъектом».

Кроме того, важно, чтобы задачи коллектива были не случайными, а представляли собой звенья единой цепи в решении все более усложняющихся и все более увлекательных задач. Тогда коллектив учащихся живет напряженной, деловой и эмоциональной жизнью, в процессе которой складываются их взаимоотношения и формируется коллективистическая направленность их личности и соответствующие черты характера.

Не менее важно и правильно организовать и систему ответственной зависимости между детьми. А между тем, согласно нашим данным, и здесь часто допускаются ошибки, ведущие к неправильному формированию общественной направленности личности школьника. В этих случаях учителя и воспитатели не выступают в коллективе в качестве старших его членов. Они занимают позицию вне коллектива и руководят детским коллективом извне, навязывая школьникам свои цели и задачи, свои требования, свою организацию. Этим в корне убивается детская самодеятельность, что является обязательной характеристикой подлинного школьного коллектива. Если детский коллектив живет и действует по мотивам, навязанным взрослыми, он перестает быть тем живым, саморазвивающимся «организмом», которого требовал А. С. Макаренко. В этих условиях и школьный актив и органы самоуправления превращаются в помощников учителей и воспитателей, часто противостоящих всей массе учащихся и выполняющих преимущественно дисциплинарные функции. Правда, они несут также значительную организационную работу, например, распределяют обязанности и осуществляют контроль, проводят ряд общешкольных или классных мероприятий. Но если сама деятельность учащихся, на которую направлены организационные усилия актива, не носит этого характера, о котором мы только что говорили, указанная организационная работа будет носить формальный характер. Таким образом, школьный актив часто оказывается активом формальным. Он не только не является выразителем требований коллектива учащихся и его общественного мнения, но он, как правило, противостоит всей основной массе детей.

И еще одну крупную ошибку совершают часто наши учителя при организации коллектива в школе. Они не соблюдают требования А. С. Макаренко о том, что руководители детского коллектива должны переизбираться не реже чем раз в три-шесть месяцев. Опыт А. С. Макаренко свидетельствует, что подростки, находящиеся длительное время в положении руководителей, начинают приобретать наряду с некоторыми положительными качествами и качества, отрицательно влияющие на формирование их нравственного облика. В связи с этим А. С. Макаренко нашел такую форму организации коллектива, при которой каждый колонист получал опыт и руководства товарищами и подчинения им. Для этого он создавал сводные отряды, имевшие временный целевой характер. Их задачей явилось выполнение разовых эпизодических дел, поручаемых детским коллективам. Именно сводные отряды давали возможность, не меняя слишком часто постоянных руководителей, создавать между членами коллектива ту сложную систему «ответственной зависимости», в условиях которой один и тот же колонист на протяжении короткого срока выступал и в функции руководителя и в функции подчиненного. А это и составляет одно из важнейших условий правильного формирования общественной направленности личности и связанных с ней нравственно-психологических качеств у всех членов детского коллектива.

Организация сводных отрядов является настолько важным элементом системы воспитания А. С. Макаренко, что он сам говорил о ней как о крупнейшем открытии за 13 лет своей педагогической деятельности.

У нас же в школах мало практикуются сводные отряды, а постоянный детский актив из года в год осуществляет руководящие функции. Наблюдения и данные опроса показывают, что в классах существует немало детей, которые ни разу за все свое пребывание в школе не были в позиции руководителей, организаторов или ответственных за какое-либо серьезное общественное дело. И есть также школьники, которые никогда не были в позиции подчиненных. К этому следует присовокупить, что учителя и воспитатели в этих дурно воспитанных коллективах по существу навязывают учащимся так называемых руководителей детского коллектива, и при этом не столько по воспитательным соображениям, сколько для того, чтобы обеспечить себе помощников. Не удивительно, что при таком воспитании формируется личность с направленностью на самоутверждение, пренебрегающая интересами коллектива, способная свысока смотреть на своих товарищей. Мы имеем полное право рассматривать такую личность как антипода тому нравственно-психологическому облику, к которому стремится коммунистическое воспитание.

В заключение скажем, что все отмеченные нами ошибки в воспитании школьников усугубляются тем, что при организации пионерской работы с учащимися часто недостаточно учитываются возрастные особенности личности подростка. А между тем эта организация по своему замыслу является наилучшей, наиболее высокой формой организации коллектива школьников и должна оказывать решающее влияние не только на их общественно-политическое воспитание, но и на формирование всей нравственной стороны их личности. Пионерская организация призвана насыщать жизнь детского коллектива содержанием, имеющим для школьников высокий общественно-политический смыл. Законы юных пионеров и торжественное обещание могут определить характер мотивов и общественную направленность личности, могут подвести школьников к овладению кодексом правил коммунистической морали и усвоению соответствующих форм нравственного поведения.

Однако в настоящее время пионерские дружины не всегда выполняют эту функцию. Это в значительной степени обусловливается тем, что при организации пионерской работы не учитываются специфические особенности психологии подростков, о которых мы писали выше. Наиболее частый и существенный недостаток пионерской работы с подростками заключается, с одной стороны, в недооценке стремления подростков к героическому, приподнятому, романтическому, с другой стороны, в недооценке их стремления к самостоятельности. Опыт пионерской работы показывает, что наибольшие удачи в воспитании подростков достигались в тех пионерских коллективах, где пионеры чувствовали себя подлинными хозяевами своей организации и участниками значительных дел, связанных с реальным улучшением окружающей жизни.

Подводя итог тем ошибкам в организации детского коллектива, которые, по-видимому, являются в настоящее время достаточно распространенными, мы можем прийти к выводу, что именно они являются одним из важнейших источников неправильного формирования личности некоторой части наших учащихся. Эти ошибки фактически препятствуют осуществлению главного принципа советской педагогики: формировать личность ребенка в коллективе, а тем самым выбивают из рук советского общества самое мощное оружие массового коммунистического воспитания детей.
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  5. The concept of personality in psychology. The essence of the personality and the factors of its formation
    In psychological science, the category of "personality" refers to the number of basic concepts. However, the concept of personality is not purely psychological and is studied by all social sciences, including philosophy, sociology, and pedagogy. From the standpoint of psychological science, a person is a specific person, taken in the system of his stable socially determined psychological characteristics, which
    According to functions, decisions and specific tasks, the state sanitary inspection is usually divided into preventive and current. Preventive sanitary supervision includes monitoring compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms and rules with: 1. The long-term planning of the development of a network of catering establishments; 2. The development of standards for the design of catering (SNiP);
    После относительно спокойного младшего школьного возраста подростковый кажется бурным и сложным. Недаром С. Холл назвал его периодом «бури и натиска». Развитие на этом этапе, действительно, идет быстрыми темпами, особенно много изменений наблюдается в плане формирования личности. И, пожалуй, главная особенность подростка — личностная нестабильность. Противоположные черты, стремления, тенденции
  8. The acquisition of knowledge and the formation of adolescents cognitive attitude to the environment
    Let us dwell in more detail on the characteristics of the process of mastering knowledge in middle classes, as this is important not only for developing the thinking of adolescents and their cognitive interests, but also for shaping their personality as a whole. Schooling always takes place on the basis of the knowledge already acquired by the child, which he acquired in the course of his life experience. Wherein
  9. Влияние самосознания подростка на другие особенности его личности
    The formation of self-consciousness has a very large impact on the behavior of the adolescent, and on a number of features of his personality. All researchers of adolescence in the old classical psychology, both here and abroad, considered such features as egocentrism and autism, striving for solitude and self-affirmation, “revolt” against adults, against any
  10. Individually typological and characterological markers of the formation of computer game addiction in adolescents 14–16 years old
    At the present stage of development of society, a significant issue is the preservation and strengthening of the physical and mental health of the younger generation. The situation of political and economic instability in the country provokes the emergence of various kinds of deviations and forms of addictive behavior. Along with alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, which have become traditional forms of addictive behavior, in one
    Under the direction is understood as a system of sustainable motives for activity, which determines the selectivity of attitude and activity of the individual in the conditions of the naval service. Being a product, a complex result of all previous life relations and communications of a serviceman, the orientation characterizes what each sailor aspires to, what positions in life he defends, for what
  12. Mechanisms of formation and direction of correction of the image of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the minds of young people
    Building a socio-psychological model for correcting the image of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and developing practical recommendations are possible if mechanisms of shaping the image of the army among the youth are identified. The concept of "mechanism" in modern Russian is understood as a set of states and processes that make up a phenomenon, or as an internal structure, a system of something. Within this
  13. Purpose, tasks and directions of work on the formation of statutory relations in part (division)
    The essence of statutory relationships is to know the rules of behavior and the established order, the understanding of their necessity and a fixed, stable habit of their observance. As soon as the rules of behavior are fixed, become familiar and determine the actions and deeds of the serviceman, as well as the military team, we can talk about the formation and development of statutory relations in part
  14. Социализация личности подростка как этап становления самосознания
    Говоря ранее о смысле психического развития ребенка, мы уподобили его процессу постепенного осознания ребенком своей отдельности. Напомним, что результатом развития младенца стало биологическое и физическое отделение от матери, а результатом развития ребенка в раннем детстве - появление первого представления о себе, о своем «Я». Основным личностным новообразованием дошкольного детства стало
    1. Formation of attitudes towards learning and the development of cognitive interests in primary school age. The transition to schooling and a new way of life related to the situation of the student, in the event that the child internally adopted the appropriate position, opens the way for the further formation of his personality. During the period of primary school education, children develop psychological
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