the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Characteristics of age psychology, developmental psychology as a science

Developmental psychology is a branch of psychological science that studies the facts and patterns of human development, the age dynamics of his psyche.

The object of studying age psychology is a normal, healthy person, developing and changing in ontogenesis. Developmental psychology highlights age-related changes in people's behavior and seeks to explain these changes, to reveal the patterns of people gaining experience and knowledge1. The focus is on “various forms of mental organization typical of individual periods of a person’s life” 2. Developmental psychology sets itself the task of studying the holistic mental development “throughout the whole space of human life from birth to death,” the most important task is to study “a changing, developing individual in a changing world” 3.

The subject of age psychology is the age periods of development, the causes and mechanisms of transition from one age period to another, general patterns and trends, the pace and direction of mental development in ontogenesis.

The following sections of age psychology are distinguished: psychology of the infant, psychology of early age, preschool psychology, psychology of the younger pupil, psychology of the adolescent, psychology of youth, psychology of the middle age, psychology of old age (gerontopsychology).

The most important part of age psychology has been and remains child psychology. Db Elkonin, in his Introduction to Child Psychology, defined its subject as the study of the process of becoming the “subject of diverse human activity” from a helpless newborn1.

At the turn of the XIX — XX centuries. age psychology as a child psychology stood out in an independent area of ​​knowledge. The “Soul of a Child”, published in 1882 by the German biologist V. Preyer, is considered the starting point for systematic scientific research of mental development in childhood.

Over the past time, the very concept of the subject of child psychology (an understanding of what should be studied) has been transformed several times, which was closely connected with a change in the research methodology 2. Initially, in the second half of the XIX - beginning of the XX century, the task of scientists was to collect and accumulate specific data, empirical information, study the phenomenology of mental development in childhood. It was a search for answers to questions about what exactly is happening in child development, when and in what sequence new skills and competences appear in a child in one respect or another. Methods of objective observation, ascertaining, a shear experiment (C. Darwin, V. Preyer, A. Gesell) answered this task. Later, the question arose of systematization, the ordering of evidence, the identification of some general patterns of mental development. The solution of this problem is connected with the names of S. Hall (theory of recapitulation), A. Gesell (theory of maturation), L. Termena (normative tradition of studying children).

In the 1920–1930s Externally observable behavior of the child has become the main object of study from the standpoint of classical behaviorism. It was considered important to establish the reaction of children of different ages and adults to identical stimuli, to describe the differences in the response to the external environment.

Researchers are increasingly beginning to take up questions about the factors, conditions and driving forces of development. The desire to penetrate the essence of child development was realized in the transition to methods of comparative study of mental development in health and pathology, methods of cross - cultural research, experimental genetic research and led to the creation of a number of theories - 3. Freud, A. Wallon, E. Erickson and other

In Russian psychology, the main tasks of children's age psychology were identified by L.S. Vygotsky (1896-1934). In “The Problem of Age,” he pointed out the need to study the characteristics of each age, the main types of normal and abnormal development, the structure and dynamics of children's development in their diversity1.

Theoretical problems of age psychology:

- the study of the driving forces, sources and mechanisms of mental development throughout the life course of a person;

- periodization of mental development in ontogenesis;

- the study of age characteristics and patterns of occurrence (occurrence, formation, change, improvement, degradation, compensation) mental processes (perception, memory, attention, etc.);

- the establishment of age-related opportunities, characteristics, patterns of implementation of various activities, learning;

- study of the age development of the individual, including in specific historical conditions.

The value of age psychology is also weighty in theoretical terms. Let us recall that almost all the major scientists who left their mark on science were also engaged in issues of age psychology. The study of the psychology of the child - the key to understanding the psychology of an adult. L.S. Vygotsky assigned child psychology a fundamental role in solving the problem of creating a “new” psychology, stressing that “the only correct way is to go in studying the psyche from child to adult” 2. The way of transformation of psychology is “from descriptive and fragmentary, ascertaining psychology into a scientific-explanatory, generalizing system of knowledge about human behavior, about the mechanisms of its movement and development, about the educational management of the processes of its development, formation and growth”.

The practical significance of age psychology is primarily associated with the scientific elaboration of questions about the normative development of a healthy child, typical age-related problems, ways and means of solving them, the stages of formation of an adult full-fledged person, citizen, professional, parent.

Practical tasks of age psychology:

- determination of age norms of mental functions, identification of psychological resources and creative potential of a person;

- creation of a system of systematic monitoring of the course of mental development, mental health of children, assistance to parents in problem situations;

- age and clinical diagnostics;

- perform the function of psychological support, assistance in times of crisis of a person’s life;

- The most optimal organization of the educational process, continuing education (including those focused on middle-aged and elderly people).

Developmental psychology as a science

Table 1



Object Developing, changing in ontogenesis a normal, healthy person

Subject Age periods of development, causes and mechanisms of transition from one age

period to another, general patterns and trends, the pace and direction of mental

development in ontogenesis

Theoretical - The problem of the driving forces, sources and mechanisms of mental development throughout the life course of a person

tasks (problems) - The problem of periodization of mental development in ontogenesis

- The problem of age-related features and patterns of mental processes

- The problem of age-related opportunities, characteristics, patterns of implementation of various activities, the assimilation of knowledge

- The problem of age-related personal development, etc.

Practical tasks - Definition of age norms of mental functions, identification of psychological resources and creative potential of a person

- Age and clinical diagnosis

- Monitoring the development of the mental development of children, providing parents in problem situations

- Psychological support, assistance in times of crisis in a person’s life

- Organization of the process for people of all ages, etc.

Developmental psychology is closely connected with other branches of psychological science.
It is based on ideas about the human psyche, developed in general psychology, uses the system of basic concepts of general psychology. At the same time, the study of the origin and initial stages of the formation of higher mental functions (for example, memory or thinking) leads to a deeper understanding of the developed forms of complex mental processes.

The study of the transformation of mental processes in children acts as a special method of understanding the mechanisms of the mental - the genetic method. However, the subject of genetic psychology does not coincide with that in age psychology. The focus of genetic psychology is the development of mental processes as such; for age psychology is important developing people.

Age psychology and pedagogical psychology have much in common, especially in their historical development. The real unity of pedagogical and age-related psychology is explained by a common object of study - a person developing and changing in ontogenesis. But in the pedagogical psychology in the foreground is the training and education of the subject in the process of the purposeful influence of the teacher, and age psychology is interested in how development proceeds in the most diverse socio-cultural situations.

A person’s mental development occurs within various social communities: families, peer groups in the yard or in kindergarten, in a school classroom. As a subject of communication and interpersonal interaction, the developing individual is partly a subject of social psychology.

The ratio of typical and individual, general and original, normal and anomalous, deviating series of development creates common fields for developmental psychology and comparative, differential, pathopsychology and clinical psychology.

Developmental psychology has diverse connections with a wide range of areas of science and culture. It relies on knowledge from the fields of natural sciences, medicine, pedagogy, ethnography, sociology, gerontology, cultural studies, art history, linguistics, logic, literature and other fields of science. And, in turn, age psychology, revealing the laws of the age formation of the psyche, makes them common property.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Characteristics of age psychology, developmental psychology as a science

  1. Prerequisites of the formation of developmental psychology and age psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    The design of developmental psychology (child or age psychology) as an independent branch of scientific knowledge belongs to the second half of the 19th century. Two directions joined together, which until this time developed in parallel and independent of each other. This is a study of child development, which were associated with natural science and medicine, as well as ethnographic studies of childhood and language, mainly
  2. Isolation of developmental psychology and age psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    Isolation of developmental psychology and age psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological
  3. Formation of age (child) psychology as an independent field of psychological science
    In the psychological teachings of past epochs (in the period of antiquity, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance) many of the most important questions of the mental development of children were already raised1. The works of ancient Greek scientists Heraclitus, Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle considered the conditions and factors of the formation of the behavior and personality of children, the development of their thinking, creativity and abilities,
  4. THE EMERGENCE OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDEPENDENT AREA OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    THE EMERGENCE OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDEPENDENT AREA OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
  5. The main stages of the development of psychology as a science
    {foto6} {foto7} Source: Zhdan A.N. The history of psychology from antiquity to modernity: A textbook for universities. - 4th revised, M.-Ekaterinburg, 2002,
  6. Developmental psychology as a component of the methodological foundations of military psychology
    Developmental psychology, being a branch of psychological science, studies the laws of mental development and personality formation at various stages of human ontogenesis from birth to old age. Developmental psychology took shape as an independent field of knowledge at the end of the last century as child psychology and for a long time was limited to studying the mental development of a child.
  7. Features of psychology as a science. The ratio of everyday and scientific psychology.
    There are two different areas of psychological knowledge - scientific and everyday, everyday psychology. If scientific psychology arose relatively recently, then everyday psychological knowledge has always been included in various types of human practice. The fundamental condition for the existence of man is a certain conscious representation of the world around him and his place in it. Study of
  8. The state and prospects for the development of military psychology as a science and a way to introduce its achievements into military practice
    Teaching questions: 1. The reasons for the increasing role of military psychology and its state. 2. Prospects for the development of military psychology and ways to introduce its achievements into military practice. The reasons for the increasing role of military psychology and its condition. The state of military psychology is a reflection of the development of science at the time of its analysis and evaluation. It is estimated by three indicators: availability
  9. Research methods in developmental psychology and age psychology
    The complex of research methods used by scientists, exploring the process of age development, consists of several blocks of methods. One part of the methods is borrowed from general psychology, the other from differential psychology, and the third from social psychology. The methods used in genetic studies (observation, tests, experiment) are closely related to the methods of general psychology, but have
  10. Developmental psychology and developmental psychology in the works of Russian psychologists
    Developmental psychology and age psychology in the works of domestic
  11. The subject of developmental psychology and age psychology
    Modern psychology is an extensive system of scientific disciplines, among which a special place is occupied by age psychology or, more correctly, the psychology of human development associated with the study of the age dynamics of the human psyche, ontogenesis of mental processes and psychological qualities of a person qualitatively changing in time. Concept of age
  12. Developmental and Developmental Psychology - an interdisciplinary branch of scientific knowledge
    In recent decades, age psychology (developmental psychology) has changed both in content and interdisciplinary communication. On the one hand, it influences other scientific disciplines, and on the other, it itself is influenced by them, assimilating everything that expands its substantive content. Biology, genetics, developmental physiology. These disciplines are primarily important.
  13. The main terms used in the course "Developmental Psychology and Developmental Psychology"
    Adaptation is a constant process of active adaptation of a person to the surrounding (primarily social) environment. Activity - the active state of living beings, which is the most important condition for their existence. Acceleration - acceleration of development. Ambivalence of feelings - duality, inconsistency of several, simultaneously experienced emotional states. Biogenetic law -
  14. CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTING ITS ACHIEVEMENTS INTO MILITARY PRACTICE
    THE CONDITION AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE AND WAYS OF IMPLEMENTING ITS ACHIEVEMENTS INTO THE MILITARY
  15. Subject, methods, interdisciplinary communication of developmental psychology and age psychology
    Subject, methods, interdisciplinary communication of developmental psychology and age
  16. SUBJECT, TASKS AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND AGE PSYCHOLOGY
    SUBJECT, TASKS AND METHODS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND AGE
  17. ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND AGE PSYCHOLOGY
    ORGANIZATION AND RESEARCH METHODS IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND AGE
  18. SUBJECT OF PSYCHOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT AND AGE PSYCHOLOGY HISTORICAL ESSAYS
    SUBJECT OF PSYCHOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT AND AGE PSYCHOLOGY HISTORICAL
  19. Modern foreign developmental psychology and age psychology
    Modern foreign developmental psychology and age
  20. GENERAL QUESTIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND AGE PSYCHOLOGY
    GENERAL QUESTIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND AGE
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com