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Naturalistic concepts of human mental development
Historically, the evolutionary-biological or naturalistic approach was the first to explain the processes of the child’s mental development. Among his supporters are psychologists from different schools in psychology (introspectionism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis, etc.); prominent representatives were S.Hall, C. Buler, V. Stern, E. Klapared, A. Gesell, Z. Freud and others. This direction consists of various theoretical trends: the theory of recapitulation, the normative approach, the theory of three stages, the theory of convergence of two factors. However, for all
differences, these theories have a common view on the process of human mental development as biologically determined, subject to natural laws.
The theory of recapitulation as the first theoretical concept in child psychology.
The first theory explaining the process of mental development was the theory of recapitulation, which was formulated by S. Hall. Studying the mental development of children, S. Hall came to the conclusion that it is based on a biogenetic law formulated by a student of C. Darwin E. Haeckel, which states that ontogenesis (the development of an individual) is a brief repetition of phylogenesis
(history of the development of the whole species). In relation to child psychology, this law states that in
In the process of individual development, the child in abbreviated form goes through the stages of evolutionary and cultural development that the human race has passed. At the same time, S.Hall believed that the sequence and content of these stages were set genetically and therefore the child can neither evade, nor miss any stage of his development. S.Holl is also the founder of pedology - a comprehensive science about the child, which is based on the idea of pedocentrism, i.e. the idea that the child is the center of the research interests of many professionals - psychologists, educators, biologists, pediatricians, anthropologists, sociologists and other specialists. Pedology has gained popularity all over the world: its attractiveness was associated with a focus on the practical needs of pedagogy. In real pedagogical practice, teachers and educators deal with an integral child, in the unity of his physical, mental and social qualities. It is this approach to the study of the child and the processes of its development that pedology has proclaimed. However, the idea of creating a comprehensive science about the child was unrealized.
Normative approach to the mental development of the child. A prominent representative of biologization pedology was the American psychologist A. Gezzel. He agrees with the position that in the first years of life a child repeats the history of the development of the human race, but claimed that childhood is also a product of evolution. In the lowest animals, childhood is practically absent; The childhood period is the longer, the higher on the evolutionary ladder this species is located. A person has not only the longest childhood, but it is qualitatively different. A. Gesell noted that in comparison with the childhood of monkeys, human childhood is not only distinguished by the addition of one floor, on which the assimilation of language and symbolic thinking takes place; this addition leads to a deep restructuring of the lower floors, making them fundamentally different in comparison with similar ones in higher animals. However, the general function of the psychic remains - biological adaptation to the environment. He assigned the main role in the mental development of the child to the maturation of the nervous system, where the main indicator of development is the pace. He formulated the law of deceleration of development with age: the pace of development is maximum at the initial stages of development and minimal at the final. A. Gesell's significant contribution to child psychology is that he laid the foundation for the formation of child psychology as a normative discipline. The normative approach in child psychology is focused on the description of achievements
the child in the process of growth and development, to build standards for the development of motor activity, speech, the child’s relationship with the outside world.
To compile the norms of mental development, A. Gesell introduced a longitudinal method into child psychology - a continuous study of the same children at different stages of their development.
Based on the compiled norms, he developed a system for diagnosing the child’s mental development from birth to adolescence. Note that the age-related changes of children A. Gesell explained the hereditary factor, i.e. remained within the biologization direction. But his approach to child psychology as a normative discipline is also important for modern psychology. Problems of the norm and pathology of development, the development of specific standards for the mental development of children at different stages of life are of great practical importance for various areas of social practice.
The theory of the three stages of child development. The German-Austrian psychologist C. Buhler shared a common view of the child’s mental development as a single and biological process in nature. Describing the features of the process of organic development, he notes that nature does not make leaps - development always occurs gradually. He advocated the idea of the inheritance of mental properties, their transmission from parents to children. In the work "Essay on the spiritual development of the child" K. Buler identifies three stages of child development: instinct, skill, intelligence. Each child must go through these steps in the process of individual development. A child’s transition from one step to another is determined by the structure of the development of the cerebral cortex, i.e. It has
biological reasons. K. Buler transferred the experimental design used in the study of anthropoid apes to the study of the developmental features of children. He emphasized the similarity of the primitive use of tools in chimpanzees and the child - he called the period of the appearance of primary forms of thinking in a child a chimpanzee-like age. Further development of child psychology showed the illegitimacy of identifying the early stages of development of a child and anthropoid apes. It was revealed that literally from the first days of his life a child develops in a fundamentally different way than cubs of higher primates. At present, the theory of three stages of children's development by K. Buhler is of historical interest only. But the problem of childhood history posed by him is of lasting importance.
The convergence theory of two factors in explaining child development. In the works of V. Stern, the evolutionary-biological approach to explaining mental development appears in the form of a theory of two factors and their convergence (rapprochement). According to V. Stern, a child is an organism that, when it is born, already has certain organic inclinations, instincts, innate drives . These internal features constitute the first factor in mental development. The second factor is the influence of the environment - natural and social. The development of a child is not a simple manifestation of innate properties and not a simple perception of external influences. The mental development of the child is the result of the convergence (interaction) of internal data with external conditions. V. Stern emphasized the need to consider sensitive periods in mental development as an internal readiness for the effective assimilation of external influences, including purposefully organized ones: for example, for teaching language, music, physical actions, etc. The convergence theory of the two factors, although it takes into account the role of external influences in development, is essentially a concept of hereditary predetermination of mental development. Social factors act only in the role of conditions that implement hereditarily fixed features of mental development.
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Naturalistic concepts of human mental development
- The concept of L. S. Vygotsky on the mental development of man
1 L. S. Vygotsky was primarily a specialist in the field of general psychology, a methodologist of psychology. He saw his scientific calling in building the scientific system of psychology, the basis of which was dialectical and historical materialism. Historicism and systematicity are the main principles in his approach to the study of psychological reality, and above all, consciousness as specifically
- Concepts of the internal causes of human mental development
Unlike American psychology, which essentially remains the psychology of learning, European psychologists (Z. Freud, J. Piaget, K. Levin, A. Wallon, H. Werner) developed new approaches to understanding mental development as a quality process that obeys internal laws of self-movement. Jean Piaget and his followers created one of the most fruitful areas of study.
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- Sociogenetic concepts of mental development
On the whole, sociogenetic concepts are based on the idea that the human psyche at the time of birth is a “clean board” and that everything can be formed as a result of learning. This approach, which identifies learning and development, is associated with the general attitudes of behaviorism. This trend has deep roots in empirical philosophy and is most consistent with American
- Cultural-historical concept of the mental development of L. S. Vygotsky
L.S. Vygotsky for the first time (1927) put forward the proposition that the historical approach should become the leading principle in the construction of human psychology. He gave a theoretical criticism of the biological, naturalistic concepts of man, contrasting them with his theory of cultural and historical development. The most important thing was that the idea of historicism of the nature of the human psyche, the idea
- MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AS AN INTELLIGENCE DEVELOPMENT: THE CONCEPT OF J. PIAJE
MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AS AN INTELLIGENCE DEVELOPMENT: CONCEPT
- HER. Vakhromov. Psychological concepts of human development: theory of self-actualization, 2001
This book is devoted to the problem of human development and reflects not only well-known scientific facts and hypotheses, but also some less well-known ones, including those obtained by the author as a result of his own research. To a certain extent, it is the result of the author comprehending the results of his activities in the field of practical psychology, bears the imprint of his subjective experience, therefore, some
- STADIUM OF MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: THE PROBLEM OF PERIODIZING DEVELOPMENT IN ONTOGENESIS
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- The problem of the specifics of human mental development
Biological, non-historical approach, the idea of evolutionism L.S. Vygotsky contrasted the idea of historicism, the cultural-historical concept of development. According to L.S. Vygotsky, every form of cultural development is already a product of the historical development of mankind, and not simple organic maturation, in the process of social life the natural needs of man
- TO THE PROBLEM OF BIOLOGICAL IN THE MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
Like the two-faced Janus, the question of the role of the biological in human development has two faces: one refers to the internal processes of the body, the other to its life in the external environment. As for intraorganic life, probably no one would mind having an eagle’s eye, a sperm whale’s stomach, a raven’s heart (if he really lives “three hundred years”), etc. Although we inherit from animals
- The problem of an adequate method of researching human mental development
The task of studying the uniqueness of the cultural and historical development of the psyche, higher mental functions and higher forms of human behavior requires an appropriate research method. The development of a new research method was carried out by Vygotsky by contrasting the existing general method of experimentation, based on the theoretical positions of classical behaviorism and
- Approach to the mental development of man in the Middle Ages
The issues of mental development, and especially the formation of a socially adapted personality, received new development in the Middle Ages, from the 3rd century on. to the 14th century During this period, religion had a serious impact on the development of the science of the soul. Since the issues of the soul, spiritual life and self-improvement became the subject of religion, the subject of psychology also changed, which gradually began to turn from the science of the soul into
- Maturity as a stage and quality in the human mental development
The period of maturity by age and the state of the spirit of man was called by the ancient Greeks the time “akme”, which meant the peak, the highest degree of something, the moment of the greatest flowering of the human person, “self-identity”. The domestic psychologist NN Rybnikov proposed to designate with the term “acmeology” a special section of developmental psychology, which is about the heyday of all life forces
- Sociological (cultural) approach to the study of human mental development
Socium as an explanatory principle in the French sociological school. The founder of the sociological trend in psychology is considered to be E. Durkheim. His work had a serious impact on the development of psychological research on the relationship between the individual and society. He assigned a decisive role in the development of the child to a social factor, the basis of which is collective representation
- ONTOGENETIC PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN: AGE STEPS
ONTOGENETIC PSYCHIC DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN: AGE
- BASIC REGULATIONS OF MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ONTOGENESIS IN RUSSIAN PSYCHOLOGY
BASIC LAWS OF MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ONTOGENESIS IN RUSSIAN
- PERSPECTIVE ACMEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS: SITUATIVE-PERSONAL-ACTIVITY CONCEPT AND CONCEPT OF CUMMULATIVE FACTOR CAUSES
The construction of acmeological testing systems, personality studies is based on a number of theoretical principles and concepts. The most important of these is the concept of cumulative factor factors and the situational-personal-activity concept. The connection between them is the closest. The concept of cumulative factor factors is based on the fact that determinism in psychology is based on cumulation
- Substantiation of the concept of mental states of military sailors
The justification of the general characteristics of the mental states of military sailors was carried out in the course of a special study, which was based on their definition as a relatively independent and stable mental phenomenon, indicating the level of human vitality, his attitude to the world, to other people, to the collective, to society, their duties and
- Prospects for the technical, economic and social development of the industry. Health Development Concept
In the process of state regulation of the development of sectors of the national economy of the Russian Federation, individual measures, plans, programs are developed, as well as long-term development forecasts and concepts are developed that determine the foundations of the strategic development of each industry. Reforming the links of the medical and social system requires the development of theoretical and methodological foundations,