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General characteristics of gaming activities

We have already said that in early childhood, elements of role play arise and begin to develop. In a role-playing game, children satisfy their desire for a life together with adults and in a special, playful way reproduce the relationships and work activities of adults.

In preschool age, the game becomes a leading activity, but not because the modern child, as a rule, spends most of his time in games entertaining him, - the game causes qualitative changes in the psyche of the child.

It is often said that a child plays when, for example, he manipulates an object or performs one or another action shown to him by an adult (especially if this action is performed not with a real object, but with a toy). But the real game action will only be when the child, under one action, means another, under one subject - another. The game action is of a sign (symbolic) nature. It is in the game that the most emerging sign function of the child’s consciousness is most clearly detected. Its manifestation in the game has its own characteristics. Game substitutes for objects can have much less similarities with them than, for example, the similarity of a picture with the depicted reality. However, game substitutes must provide the opportunity to act with them as with a replacement item. Therefore, giving its name to the chosen substitute subject and attributing certain properties to it, the child takes into account some features of the sarcastic subject itself. When choosing substitute subjects, the preschooler proceeds from the real relations of the subjects. He readily agrees, for example, that a half-match will be a teddy bear, a whole match - a teddy bear-mother, a box - a bed for a teddy bear. But he would never accept such an option, where the teddy bear would be boxes, and the match would be the bed. “It doesn’t happen,” is the child’s usual reaction.

In the game activity, the preschooler not only replaces objects, but also takes on a particular role and begins to act in accordance with this role. Although a child can take on the role of a horse or a terrible beast, most often he portrays adults: mother, teacher, driver, pilot. In the game for the first time, the child opens up the relationship that exists between people in the process of their work, their rights and obligations.

Responsibilities in relation to others - this is what the child feels it necessary to fulfill on the basis of the role that he took on himself. Other children expect and demand that he correctly fulfill his role. In the role of a buyer1, for example, a child realizes that he cannot leave without paying for what he has chosen. The role of the doctor obliges you to be patient, but also demanding in relation to the patient, etc. While fulfilling duties, the child receives rights in relation to persons whose roles are played by other participants in the game. So, the buyer has the right to be released any goods on the toy counter, has the right to be treated like the other customers, the Doctor has the right to respectful and trustful attitude to his person, he has the right to that patients follow his instructions.

The role in the story game lies precisely in fulfilling the duties that are imposed by the role and exercising rights in relation to other participants in the game.

The plot and content of the game. In a role-playing game, children reflect the diversity of reality surrounding them. They reproduce scenes from family life, from labor activity and labor relationships of adults, reflect epoch-making events (space flights, Arctic expeditions), etc. The reality reflected in children's games becomes the plot of a role-playing game. The wider the sphere of reality that children face, the wider and more varied the plot of the games. Therefore, of course,] the younger preschooler has a limited number of plots, while the older preschooler has extremely varied game plots. Children of five to six years old play not only as guests, as mother daughters, as a kindergarten, but also as a collective farm, as a bridge builder, as a spaceship.

Along with an increase in the variety of subjects, the duration of the games increases. So, the duration of the game for children three to four years old is only 10-15 minutes, for four-, five-year-olds

1 Hereinafter, in the names of game roles, actions and in the names of games, quotation marks are omitted.

Fig. 6.

The content of the game is a plotless action with objects



reaches 40-50 minutes, and in older preschoolers, games can last several hours and even for several days.

Some stories of children's games are found in both younger and older preschoolers (daughters, mothers, kindergarten). But despite the fact that there are plots common for children of all preschool ages, they are played out differently: within the same plot, the game becomes more diverse among older preschoolers. It is common for each age to reproduce different sides of reality within the same plot. So, one and the same game in Chelyuskintsev can be observed at completely different stages of development. For kids and this game, first of all, the action itself opens - swimming on an icebreaker. A step higher - external social relations and the social hierarchy (“who is the most important?”) Of the participants in the polar epic, the rules of behavior of the captain, engineer, radio operator, etc. come to the forefront. Finally, internal social relations are placed at the center - moral, higher emotional moments . Children play similar games at any age, but they play them differently.

Thus, an indication of the plot does not fully characterize the game. Along with the plot, it is necessary to distinguish the content of the role-playing game. The content of the game is what the child highlights as the main point of adult activity. Children of different age groups, when playing with the same plot, contribute different contents to this game. So, younger preschoolers repeatedly repeat the same actions with the same subjects, reproducing the real actions of adults. Reproduction of real actions of adults with objects becomes the main content of the game of younger preschoolers. When playing lunch, for example, kids cut bread, cook porridge, wash dishes, while repeatedly reproducing the same actions. However, the sliced ​​bread is not served to the table by the dolls, the cooked porridge is not laid out on the dishes, the dishes are washed when it is still clean. Here the content of the game comes down exclusively to actions with objects (Fig. 6).

The game plot, as well as the playing role, chaos!, Is not planned by a child of a preschool age, but arises depending on what kind of subject falls into his hands. So, if the child has a handset in his hands, then he is a doctor, if a thermometer, then a sister. The main conflicts between children arise due to the possession of the subject with which the action should be performed.! Therefore, very often two drivers drive the car at the same time, several doctors examine the patient, several mothers prepare dinner. Hence the frequent change of roles associated with the transition from one subject to another.

At the same time, among younger preschoolers, in some cases, the relations between people can appear as the content of the game. I

The experimenter offers Gale to be a teacher, and she (the experimenter) and Galochka will be the guys. Galya, smiling: “Yes, I will be F. S. (that's the name of the teacher), and you will be Galya, okay?” - and, not expecting an answer, Galya gives] an order: “Sit at the table. No, wash your hands before, right there ”- says n! the wall. A tick goes to the wall, the experimenter behind it. A checkmark makes movements as if washing itself. Galya: "Sit down at the table, so I already made it - a roll and a cup, now I’ll spill tea." He picks up fallen dry leaves near flower pots and puts them in two or three in three heaps. A checkmark and an experimenter sit down at the table. Galya looks seriously, then says: “Galya, sit still. Do not chat at the table. ” Lays a couple more leaves. Vilya approaches, also sits down at the table and begins to eat. Galya: “Now you can go to sleep.” Check mark; ". First rinse your mouth." He goes to the wall, makes movements, as if rinsing his mouth. Galya points to the chairs: "Here to sleep." Checkmark, Vilya and the experimenter sit down. Galya: "Close your eyes, hands under your head." Vilya fidgets. Galya: “Vilya, lie quietly. Do not twist! ” Vilya calms down.

Galya: “They already slept. Get up. Get dressed. ” Vilya, Galochka, behind them the experimenter seemed to put on shoes, fasten the dressing gowns. Sit down at the table. Galya: "Drink tea." He puts in front of each a wooden cylinder of building material, pours it from another. “This is tea,” she explains. He goes, brings several halves of balls and gives them out, saying: “Buns, each one has a bun.” He smiles when he meets the experimenter with his eyes , and again seriously: "Vilya, do not delay, soon!" The name of the experimenter. She says that her mother came for her and leaves. (Based on materials by F. I. Fradkina.)

Younger preschoolers recreate relationships in the game in the game! limited, narrow circle of plots. As a rule, these are related to the direct practice of the children themselves. Late recreation of people's relationships becomes the main point in the game. So, the game in children of middle preschool age proceeds as follows. The actions performed by the child are not repeated endlessly, but one action is replaced by another. Moreover, actions are not performed for the sake of the actions themselves, but in order to express a certain attitude towards another person in accordance with the role taken. These relationships can be played out with the doll, which received a certain role. For example, if a child of middle preschool age plays at lunch, then he cuts bread and serves it to the table. Offering porridge to dolls depicting children, a child who takes on the role of a teacher or nanny makes sure that all children (dolls) eat all the porridge and do not talk to each other during meals. The actions performed by a middle-aged preschooler are more curtailed than among younger preschoolers. In the plot games of middle-aged preschoolers, the main content is the relationship between people:

In a large room, seven children play.
Borya is the head of the station. He's to the red cap. In the hands of a stick is a wooden circle. He fenced off a small space with chairs, explaining: "This is the station where the boss lives."

Tolya, Edik, Lucy and Lena are passengers. They set the chairs one by one and sat on them.

Lenya. How can we go without a driver? I will be a train driver.

He moved forward and panted like a steam locomotive.

Galya is the barmaid. Around the table, she fenced off the sideboard with chairs. On the table I put a box in which I picked up pieces of paper - money. Next to it, on white paper, I laid out broken pieces of cookies. “Here I have a rich buffet,” she says.

Varya. “I will sell tickets. Oh, what is that called?

Experimenter. Cashier.

Varya. Yes, yes, cashier. Give me the paper. (Having received the paper, tears it into pieces. Larger ones are laid aside.) These are tickets, and this is money, to give change.

Borya approaches Lena: "When I give you this circle, you should go right away." Lenya puffs. Passengers are seated.

Suddenly, Borya, laughing, says: “Passengers are sitting without tickets, but it’s time to go by train.”

Passengers run to the ticket office, where, waiting, Varya is sitting. They give Vara pieces of paper, she gives tickets in exchange. Having bought tickets, passengers run and take places. Borya walks over and gives Lena a circle. Len puffs, and the train rides.

Galya. When will they come to buy?

Borya. I can go now. The train is gone and I'm free.

He goes to the buffet and asks: "One cookie." Galya gives him one piece and demands: “And the money?” Borya runs to the experimenter and, having received a piece of paper, returns and buys cookies. He eats it with a pleased look.

Varya fidgets in a chair, looks at the buffet, but does not leave. Then he again looks at the buffet and at the experimenter and asks: “And when should I go for food? I don’t have anyone now, ”as if she were justifying herself. Lenya responds: "So what do you need, go and that's it." Varya looks around and quickly runs to the buffet. Hurriedly buys cookies and runs back. Galya shifts the cookies, but doesn’t take herself. Lenya puffs loudly and shouts: “Stop!” He and the passengers are running to the buffet. Everyone buys cookies and returns again. Borya takes a circle from Lenya and then again gives him. Len puffs - the train leaves. Varia goes to the buffet. The experimenter at this time approaches the ticket office and seriously says: “I’m up to Malakhovka (he sends, but the cashier left.” Varia runs, not having time to get the cookies: “I'm here, I'm here, I’ve left for a minute.” Gives the experimenter a ticket. Borya is standing at the buffet, buying and eating cookies.

Galya. And I want to eat, but how do I want to buy or what do I want?

Borya (with a laugh). Buy from yourself and pay yourself.

Galya smiles, but takes two kopeks at once and buys two pieces from herself! explaining to the experimenter, whom he was looking at all the time: "They have already bought it." So the game continues for some time. Then the children go for a walk (Based on materials from D. B. Elkonin.)

A detailed transfer of relations between people in the game teaches a child to obey certain rules. Getting acquainted with the social life of adults through the game, children are more and more familiar with | They understand the social functions of people and the right-handed relations between them.

The content of the role-playing game for older preschoolers is subject to the rules arising from the role they have taken. Children of this age are extremely meticulous about the implementation of the rules. Fulfilling the rules of social behavior in the game, children turn their attention to what happens. Therefore, they argue about what happens and what does not happen: “Moms don’t do that!”; "Is the doctor treating the sick like that?" Etc.

Thus, the development of the plot and content of the role-playing game reflects the increasingly deeper penetration of the child into the life of surrounding adults.

Real relationships between children in a game situation. In the game, there are two types of relationships - game and real) Game relationships reflect the relationship according to the plot) and the role. So, if a child takes on the role of Karabas-Barabas, will he, in accordance with the plot, exaggerate maliciously? to children who took on the roles of other characters in A. Tolstoy's fairy tale “The Adventures of Pinocchio, or the Golden Key”.

A real relationship is the relationship of the children of partners, comrades, performing a common cause. They can agree on the plot, the distribution of roles, discuss issues and misunderstandings that arise during the game. In game activity, certain forms of communication between children arise. Igrg requires the child of such qualities as initiative, communication, the ability to coordinate their actions with the actions of a "group of peers in order to establish and maintain communication.

Elements of communication appear very early, when children still do not know how to build a detailed story game, but play individually | each on their own. Usually during this period of development of games the child is focused on his own actions and Mals pays attention to the actions of another child. However, from time to time, fed up with his own game, the baby begins to look at how another child is playing. Interest in a peer game just leads to attempts to establish a definite | relationships. The first forms of relationships are manifested in the desire of the child to approach another) child, play with him next to him, in the desire to give up part of the place taken for his game, in a timid smile given to another and the moment when the children meet his eyes. Such light contacts do not yet change the essence of the game - each child plays on his own, possibly observing the “discipline of distance”.

At the next stage (in three or four years), the child begins to intensively communicate with his peer. He is actively looking for a reason for joint activity, for establishing relations. The duration of communication in this case depends on Gogo, to what extent the child mastered the game use of objects, the ability to create and implement a game plan.

At a time when the game consists only in performing the most "elementary actions with toys (rolling a car behind a rope, pouring sand from a bucket), the child’s interaction with his peer is short-lived. The content of the game does not yet give rise to sustainable communication. At this stage, children can change toys, help each other; one may rush to help the other correctly put the car overturned, and the other, correctly understanding his impulse, will kindly accept this service.

With the development of gaming skills and the complexity of game designs, children begin to engage in longer communication. The game itself requires this and contributes to it. Penetrating deeper into the lives of adults, a child discovers that this life is constantly going on in society, in interaction with other people. Mom talks with dad, serves family dinner, monitors the behavior of children at the table. The seller serves buyers. The doctor treats the pain, the sister helps him, etc. The desire to reproduce the relationship of adults in the game leads to the fact that the child begins to need partners who would play with him. Hence the need arises to agree with other children, to organize a game together that includes several roles.

In a joint game, children learn the language of communication, learn to coordinate their actions with the actions of another, learn to understand and help each other.

Объединение детей в совместной игре способствует дальнейшему обогащению и усложнению содержания игр. Опыт каждого ребенка ограничен. Он знаком со сравнительно узким кругом действий, выполняемых взрослыми. В игре возникает обмен опытом. Дети перенимают друг у друга имеющиеся знания, обращаются за помощью к взрослым. В результате игры становятся интереснее и многообразнее. Усложнение содержания игр ведет, в свою очередь, к усложнению реальных взаимоотношений, к увеличению количества участников игры, к необходимости более четкого согласования их действий.

Реальные взаимоотношения детей могут возникать по поводу игры, когда дети только договариваются между собой, но могут протекать в скрытом виде и в ходе самой игры. Реальные взаимоотношения, возникающие по поводу игры, нередко переносятся затем во взаимоотношения, определяемые сюжетом игры. В этом случае сюжетные отношения становятся формой, в которой проявляются реальные взаимоотношения.

Реальные взаимоотношения между детьми могут совпадать с возможной логикой сюжетных отношений. Например, инициатор игры в самолеты и регулировщика, предлагая эту игру, сам становится регулировщиком. В этом случае инициатор игры и в самой игре по праву роли получает возможность руководить другими детьми.

Реальные взаимоотношения между детьми могут не соответствовать логике сюжетных отношений. Например, инициатор игры берет на себя подчиненную роль (он изображает один из самолетов целой эскадрильи) и подчиняется ребенку, выполняющему роль регулировщика.

Игровые взаимоотношения могут быть осложнены реальными, если инициатор игры берет на себя подчиненную роль, но реально продолжает руководить игрой.

С развитием умения создавать развернутый сюжетный замысел, планировать совместную деятельность ребенок подходит к необходимости найти место среди играющих, наладить с ними связи, понять желания играющих и соразмерить с ними свои собственные желания и возможности. При этом каждый ребенок учится вести себя сообразно общей ситуации игры и составу данной группы детей. Уже при вступлении в игру дети обнаруживают индивидуальные особенности. Один требовательно кричит: «Я буду главным! Я!» Часть ребят спокойно примет это желание. Однако может найтись и такой, которого подобное заявление не будет устраивать. В этом случае возникает конфликт. Ребенок, недовольный распределением ролей, может категорически отказаться от участия в игре: «Не буду с вами играть. И все!» Но он может и вытеснить претендента на первое место: «А ну! Идите все сюда! Командовать буду я!»

Если дети не сумеют договориться между собой, игра распадется. Интерес к игре, желание участвовать в ней приводят к тому, что дети идут на взаимные уступки.
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Общая характеристика игровой деятельности

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