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Pre-conservative (pre-moral) level (4-10 years)

The actions of people who are at this level of moral development are determined by external circumstances (rules) in order to avoid punishment and deserve a reward. The views of other people are not taken into account by this subject. This level of development determines the first two stages.

Stage 1: "humility and punishment."

Children's answers? 1) “Heinz had to buy medicine. If he stole it, he should be put in jail and one way or another he will have to pay the full cost. ”

2) “Heinz should have stolen the medicine, because if he hadn’t done this, he would have tortured his conscience. he would consider himself responsible for the death of his wife. "

3) “There is nothing terrible in the fact that Heinz decided to steal, because in fact, the medicine costs not $ 2,000, but much cheaper. Therefore, Heinz does not risk severe punishment. ”

As you can see, despite the opposite answers, they all characterize the first stage of the child’s moral development. This is due to the fact that children, above all, are guided by the avoidance of possible punishment, due to violation of the established rules of behavior:

“I have to do what I promised, otherwise they will punish me?” - that's the main reason for the child’s response. These responses can be traced to the powerful influence of the child's egocentric position, which provides for a single point of view, firmly and unambiguously relating cause and effect to each other. The other possible point of view, the value of human life, is not taken into account. “The more cups are broken, the punishment should be more severe” - the leading motive of the response of three-year-old Vanya, who believes that Peter, who broke 5 cups, helping his mother to lay the table, deserves more punishment than Sasha, who took candy from the buffet without asking and broke just one cup.
Another possible point of view - the motives of Petit and Sasha - Vanya are not taken into account. He focuses on his own "I" and rigidly focuses on the dual unity: "pain-pleasure."

Stage 2: "personal interest."

Answers: 1) “If Heinz does not want to lose his spouse, he must steal the medicine. Perhaps he will be sent to prison, but he will save his wife. After all, when your dog dies - this is one thing, because there is no particular need for it. I don’t know if he should have done the same for a friend, because I'm not sure that he would go to theft for his sake. ”

2) “Heinz should not steal. Otherwise, everyone will consider him a thief. Maybe friends will help him to collect the required amount. "

The child's egocentric position is maintained. Only the object under consideration changes: at the first stage, it is the possibility of punishment, as a result of a violation of the rules, at this stage there is a personal interest, personal satisfaction:

“Since you took my toy without asking, I will take it from you”. If this person (in this case, the wife) is personally interesting to me, then it changes things, and if he is not interesting to me, then it is quite another matter. The subject of personal ~ ~ (satisfaction) interao can be anything.

Thus, the content of the first level of HD-development is determined either by the measure of reward or punishment (1st stage), or by the benefit, interest, or pleasure that can be extracted. ”
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Pre-conservative (pre-moral) level (4-10 years)

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