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The problem of practical intelligence in animal psychology and child psychology

At the very beginning of the development of child psychology as a special branch of psychological research, K. Stumpf tried to describe the nature of a new scientific field, comparing it with botany. K. Linnaeus, he said, as you know, called botany a pleasant science. This does not suit modern botany very much ... If any science deserves the name pleasant, then it is precisely the psychology of childhood, the science of the most precious, beloved and pleasant that is in the world, which we especially care about and that is why we are obliged to study understand.

Behind this beautiful comparison was much more than just transferring the epithet applied by Linnaeus to botany to child psychology. Behind him was a whole philosophy of child psychology, a peculiar concept of child development, which in all studies tacitly proceeded from the premise proclaimed by Stumpf. The botanical, vegetative nature of child development was highlighted in this concept, and the child’s mental development was understood mainly as a growth phenomenon. In this sense, modern child psychology has not completely freed itself from the botanical tendencies that gravitate above it and prevent it from realizing the uniqueness of the child’s mental development compared to plant growth. Therefore, A. Gesell is deeply right when he points out that our usual ideas about child development are still full of botanical comparisons. We are talking about the growth of a child’s personality, we call the garden a system of early childhood education.

Only in the process of lengthy research, which spanned decades, was psychology able to overcome the initial idea that the processes of mental development are built and proceed according to a botanical model. Today, psychology begins to take hold of the idea that the complexity of child development is not exhausted by growth processes and that often, especially when it comes to the most complex and specific forms of behavior for a person, growth (in the direct meaning of the word) is part of the overall process development, but not as a determining one, but as a subordinate quantity.
The development processes themselves also reveal complex qualitative transformations of one form into another, such as Hegel would say, the transition of quantity into quality and vice versa, with respect to which the concept of growth is no longer applicable.

But if modern psychology as a whole parted with the botanical prototype of child development, it, as if walking along the ascending ladder of sciences, is now full of ideas that the development of the child in essence is only a more complex and developed variant of the emergence and evolution of those forms of behavior that we are already observing in the animal kingdom. The botanical captivity of child psychology has been replaced by its zoological captivity, and many of the most powerful areas of our modern science are looking for a direct answer to the question of the psychology of child development in animal experiments. These experiments with minor modifications are transferred from the zoopsychological laboratory to the nursery, and it is not for nothing that one of the most respected researchers in this field is forced to admit that the study of the child is due to the zoopsychological experiment as the most important methodological success.

The rapprochement of child psychology with zoopsychology has yielded extremely much for the biological justification of psychological research. It really led to the establishment of many important points that bring together the behavior of the child and the animal in the field of lower and elementary mental processes. But recently, we have been present at an extremely paradoxical stage in the development of child psychology, when the chapter on the development of higher intellectual processes that are characteristic of a person created before our eyes is formed as a direct continuation of the corresponding chapter of zoopsychology. Nowhere is this paradoxical attempt to unravel the specifically human in the psychology of the child and its formation in the light of similar forms of behavior of higher animals does not affect with such clarity as in the doctrine of the practical intelligence of the child, the most important function of which (intelligence) is the use of tools.
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The problem of practical intelligence in animal psychology and child psychology

  1. Problems of self-help in the activities of practical psychologists
    Since psychology itself is one of the areas of professional activity, a natural question arises: who will help psychologists themselves to optimize their work? The easiest way would be to say that this should be done by the methodology of psychology, since the essence of the methodology is precisely reflection (comprehension of one’s own activity). Note that in every science (and in every
  2. The main ethical problems and the “temptations” of practical psychology
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  3. Experiments on the practical intelligence of the child
    The beginning of a new and fruitful series of studies was laid by the well-known works of W. Köhler on humanoid monkeys. As we know, Koehler from time to time compared the reactions of a child in experiments with the reactions of chimpanzees in a similar situation. This turned out to be fatal for all later researchers. Direct comparison of the child’s practical intelligence with similar actions by monkeys
  4. MODULE 2. ETHICAL CODE OF THE PSYCHOLOGIST. ETHNIC PRINCIPLES, STANDARDS AND PROBLEMS IN ROBOT PSYCHOLOGIST
    NOT 2.1. The main ethical problems and the “zvobi” of the practical and scientific-psychological work of a psychologist Plan: 1. Ethical problems of the type “psychologist-client”, “psychologist-colleague”, “psychologist-administrator / adminstratori”. 2. The main ethical "zvaby" practical psychology. 3. Ethical problems in a science-docent psychologist. Homework: Describe the "syndrome of emotion"
  5. MODULE 2 IDENTITY CODE OF THE PSYCHOLOGIST. ETHNIC PRINCIPLES, STANDARDS AND PROBLEMS IN ROBOT PSYCHOLOGIST
    NOT 2.2. Ethical standards in a robot psychologist Plan: 1. Understanding an ethical standard. 2 Ethical standards of a psychologist, adopt the American Psychological Association of Society in 1963 fate. 3. Ethical standards for a psychologist, adopted by Madrid, Spain. 4. The characteristic of the "European" and the "American" standards is alternate. 5. The problem is that of a similar kind of standard psychologist in
  6. Practical Psychology as a Field of Professional Psychologists
    Practical psychology as a field of professional activity
  7. The function of speech in the use of tools. The problem of practical and verbal intelligence
    Two processes of critical importance to which this article is devoted: the use of tools and the use of symbols - have so far been considered in psychology as isolated and independent of each other. For a long time in science there was an opinion that practical intellectual activity associated with the use of tools does not have a significant relationship to the development of iconic,
  8. MODULE 2. ETHICAL CODE OF THE PSYCHOLOGIST. ETHNIC PRINCIPLES, STANDARDS AND PROBLEMS IN ROBOT PSYCHOLOGIST
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  9. SUBJECT OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL OBJECTIVES OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY
    SUBJECT OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL OBJECTIVES OF THE AGE
  10. Practical psychology
    The main goal of practical psychology is psychological help to people. Practical psychology is partly art, partly based on applied psychology as a system of practically oriented scientific knowledge. The work of practical psychologists is aimed at finding ways and developing methods of psychological assistance to people in solving their life or professional problems. Practical methods
  11. Practical Psychology and Its Features
    Practical psychology is a psychology focused on the needs of a wide range of educated people, at least people of a sufficient level of cultures. Understanding the nature of a real object during the work of a practical psychologist should be based not only on a specific objective representation, which is in psychological science (or its field), but also on the reality in which this object is included,
  12. Practical psychology
    The fourth source of psychological knowledge is practical psychology. Her tasks include finding ways and developing methods of psychological assistance to people. Practical psychology does not study the general laws of psychic phenomena, but individuality, specific circumstances of a person’s life and ways of interacting with him. In this case, practical experience and
  13. General concept of practical psychology
    Practical psychology is a branch of psychology, the subject of which is psychological assistance, i.e. practical activities of psychologists aimed at a specific person with his problems, requests, needs, etc. The emergence of the profession of a practical psychologist in the early twentieth century is associated primarily with the emergence of a social order for the implementation of psychological forms of scientific
  14. History of Practical Pedagogical Psychology
    At the end of the 19th century, educational psychology arose and began to intensively develop. Psychology was moving closer to school pedagogy under the pressure of the needs of society. The American psychologist Stanley Hall began publishing the Pedagogical Seminar magazine in 1891, the first journal devoted to the problems of pedagogical and child psychology. In France, the problems of school psychological services in
  15. PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    As is clear from what has been said, in psychology — as in most other sciences — there are areas focused primarily on gaining knowledge, research (although practical recommendations can also be made there), and 1 areas that specifically “serve” practice — labor, educational , medical, etc. or aimed at helping people experiencing difficulties in their personal lives. On the base
  16. Who needs practical psychology and why?
    The intensification of practical psychological work in our country began in the 80s. In just ten years, the number of practical psychologists has significantly increased, psychological services and psychological consultations have begun to appear everywhere, psychological training has gained great popularity. However, this process proceeded most often spontaneously (Radzikhovsky, 1987). Social order for
  17. Theoretical and Practical Psychology
    In recent decades, practical psychology has begun to actively develop in our country. What is the difference between psychology as a science and psychology as a practical activity? It seems possible to answer this question if we turn to the functions of psychology. Function (from lat. Functio - departure, activity) - Duty, range of activities, work, appointment. Psychology
  18. Nikitchenko TG. Personality of a Practical Psychologist, 2011
    The personality of a practical psychologist as a subject of professional activity: - the concept of "personality". Personality and its professional characteristics. - personality traits of a practical psychologist as a consequence of the specifics of his profession. “A psychologist is not a person, but a profession.” “A psychologist is first and foremost a person.” - Psychological burnout syndrome: its causes, stages and methods
  19. Practical psychologist in kindergarten
    The introduction of a practical psychologist in educational institutions began in 1988, when the rate of "psychologist" was introduced in educational institutions. The main goal of both a child psychologist working in kindergarten and the psychological education service as a whole is to ensure the psychological health of children. Psychological health involves mental health, at the heart of
  20. Psychology as an applied and practical direction
    At present, practical psychology can be considered not only as a sphere of application of psychological knowledge, not only as a psychological practice and a way to test speculative psychological models, but also as a new, actively developing branch of psychological science that has its own subject? study and development. As such, in our opinion, the principles, methods and
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