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Psychological characteristics of adolescence

A well-known domestic teacher A.P. Krakovsky, comparing the behaviors of primary schoolchildren and younger adolescents, whose age difference is only one year, states that adolescents are 6 times more stubborn in comparison with their younger comrades, 9 times more likely to flaunt their shortcomings, 10 times more often contrast themselves with their parents. In general, the number of unmotivated negative actions by adolescents is 42 times (!) More than among younger students *.

American researchers Robert and Gene Bayard, based on numerous conversations with parents of adolescents, have compiled a generalized list of actions and actions of the latter that concern parents. No less, they scored 65 points: from the innocuous “gets dirty in the kitchen” to - “had an abortion and became pregnant again” 2. We will not give this list in full, but try to highlight the most characteristic features of adolescent behavior and psychological conditions most often experienced by adolescents. Many of them were noticed long ago and our task is to generalize them.

The first thing that catches your eye is a sharp deterioration in behavior. This is manifested in negativism (i.e., the desire to act against the will of others), stubbornness, pugnacity, opposing oneself to teachers and adults, etc. (see the characterization of the negative phase of psychic puberty by S. Buhler, “dominants of effort” by L. S. Vygotsky).

It is easy to see the similarities in the behavior of a teenager and a three-year-old baby. All those are stubbornness, negativism ”, obstinacy, self-will. There he did not want to go hand in hand with an adult, wanting to assert the right to his “I myself”, and here it is important for him to recognize his worthy position in society, recognition of his “I”.

Another feature of adolescent behavior is the pronounced inconsistency of aspirations and their unstable nature (see St Hall data). The contradictory nature of emotional states experienced by a teenager, expressed psychological discomfort, anxiety, fears, a feeling of loneliness, etc., are also associated with this trait.

According to A.E. Lichko, a characteristic feature of adolescent behavior is the emancipation reaction, i.e. expressed desire to free oneself from custody and control by parents and adults. ” However, emancipation is far from always taking the form of opposition, as perceived by parents. A teenager strives not so much to confront adults as to become equal to them, which, of course, is difficult given the continued economic and social dependence.
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Along with the emancipation reaction, A. Yelichko singles out as a specifically teenage grouping reaction with peers, which is the flip side of the first. This reaction, with all its seeming nonsense to adults, apparently meets some emotional needs of adolescents2.

Finally, it is important to keep in mind the features of the character of adolescents, in particular, the severity at this age of the so-called accentuation of character.

It may seem that all of the above is a mandatory attribute of the psyche and behavior of any adolescent whose life is “pitch hell”. This, of course, is not so. Despite the fact that this period of development is characterized as a crisis, the crisis itself can proceed in different ways. This was already mentioned earlier in characterizing the crisis of 3 years. Repeat this now. The nature and content of the crisis is due to how sharp the contradictions that determine the social situation of the development of adolescents. If they are mitigated through the preventive actions of teachers, parents and other adults, the teenager and the parents themselves may not notice any crisis, as 35% of the young men examined by the spouses Offer did not notice it. For 23% it went smoothly and calmly and only for 215 it was a period of severe internal and external conflicts.

The reasons for such serious changes in the behavior and personality of a teenager are due to the so-called "development goals", most clearly formulated by R. Havigurst. These include: 1) adaptation of a teenager to changes in his physical condition, acceptance and effective use of his body; 2) the achievement of a socially acceptable adult sexual role;

3) the achievement of a mature relationship with knitting needles of the opposite sex; 4) the development of intellectual abilities;

5) the development of a set of values ​​in accordance with which behavior is built; 6) achievement of socially responsible behavior; 7) choice of profession and preparation for professional activity; 8) achievement of economic independence; 9) preparation for marriage and family life. Although this list, in the opinion of D.I. Feldstein, is eclectic in nature, nevertheless, it allows one to identify the main areas (directions) of development in adolescence. This is the sexual, cognitive and social development of a teenager.
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Psychological characteristics of adolescence

  1. The main characteristics of a person in adolescence and youth
    In adolescence and youth (the period from 11 to 19 years) there is a further development of mental cognitive processes and the formation of personality. The most significant changes in the structure of mental cognitive processes in people who have reached adolescence are observed in the intellectual sphere. During this period, the formation of logical thinking skills takes place, and then
  2. The main characteristics of a person in adolescence and youth
    In adolescence and youth (the period from 11 to 19 years) there is a further development of mental cognitive processes and the formation of personality. The most significant changes in the structure of mental cognitive processes in people who have reached adolescence are observed in the intellectual sphere. During this period, the formation of logical thinking skills takes place, and then
  3. Psychological neoplasms of adolescence
    Cognitive development in adolescence. The younger adolescence is characterized by an increase in cognitive activity (the “peak of curiosity” falls on 11-12 years), the expansion of cognitive interests. In adolescence, the intellectual processes of a teenager are actively being improved. In Western psychology, the development of intelligence in adolescence is considered with
  4. Brief psychological characteristics of age
    Preschool childhood is over. It was during this period that the formation of basic personality formations took place. The fate of any person depends on how his pre-school childhood passed. This was well understood by the priests when they said: “Leave me a child until the age of 6, and then take it back.” A good preschool teacher can give a forecast for the development of his pupil: what life awaits
  5. TEENAGE YEARS
    The boundaries of adolescence are quite uncertain (from 9-11 to 14-15 years). Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later. The social situation of development Adolescence “begins” with a change in the social situation of development. In psychology, this period is called a transitional, difficult, critical age. This age was investigated by many prominent psychologists. First
  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD ACTIVITIES AT PRESCHOOL
    PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD ACTIVITIES IN PRESCHOOL
  7. ADOLESCENCE (FROM 11 TO 15 YEARS)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for both the child and adults close to him. Therefore, adolescence is sometimes called protracted
  8. Adolescence (11-15 years)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period are rather vague. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 and 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
  9. ADOLESCENCE (FROM 11 TO 15 YEARS)
    Adolescence is associated with the restructuring of the child's body - puberty. And although the lines of mental and physiological development do not go parallel, the boundaries of this period vary significantly. Some children enter adolescence earlier, others later, a puberty crisis can occur at 11 or 13 years old. Beginning with a crisis, the entire period is usually difficult for the child,
  10. The crisis of adolescence
    A detailed analysis of foreign concepts of the causes and manifestations of the crisis of adolescence was carried out by D. I. Feldstein [15]. He indicates that the first who drew attention to a new social phenomenon - the teenage period of development, was J. Zh. Rousseau. In his novel Emil, published in 1762, he first drew attention to the psychological significance that this period has in human life. Russo
  11. ADOLESCENCE (13 - 16 years old)
    The adolescent period is not distinguished in all societies, but only with a high level of civilization. Industrial development leads to the fact that more and more time is required for public and professional education of children and, accordingly, the expansion of the framework of adolescence. The literature describes under different names: adolescent, transitional, puberty, puberty,
  12. Leading activities in adolescence
    The teenager continues to be a schoolboy; educational activity remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of the adolescent period is the child’s persistent desire to recognize his personality as adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish himself among them. D.B. Elkonin believed that the leading activity of children
  13. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
    Adolescence is the most difficult and difficult of all childhood ages, which is a period of personality formation. At this age, the foundations of morality are being formed, social attitudes are formed, attitude towards oneself, towards people, towards society. In addition, at a given age, character traits and the main forms of interpersonal behavior are stabilized. Among the many personality traits inherent in
  14. Adolescence in the light of different concepts
    There are many fundamental studies, hypotheses, and theories of adolescence. The “discovery” of adolescence in psychology is rightfully owned by S. Hall. Based on the theory of recapitulation developed by him, S. Hall believed that the adolescent stage in the development of the individual corresponds to the era of romanticism in the history of mankind and reproduces the era of chaos, when natural aspirations
  15. TEENAGE YEARS
    Adolescence is called transitional. During this period, significant changes occur in the body of the child. They are associated with the fact that at this time begins the period of puberty. There is an intensive physical development of the child. There is a significant development of the psyche. Significantly developing memory. The child possesses the ability to purposefully and randomly memorize what is studied at school
  16. Myths and realities of adolescence
    I will not be mistaken if I say that of all periods of a child’s development, the most puzzling, difficult and even dangerous is adolescence. This is the period that brings the biggest headache to parents and teachers, ordinary people and law enforcement agencies. This is the same period that gave rise to the concepts of “the problem of fathers and children” and “generational conflict”. Finally, this is the same age for which
  17. Leading activities in adolescence
    Studying the laws of level development of personality in ontogenesis and comparing preschool age with adolescence, D.I. Feldstein emphasizes that adolescence is once again the sensitive side of activity, emphasizing the development of relationships. The desire inherent in a preschooler to be like an adult, as if he were an adult, is transformed in a teenager into a need to be an adult, to be
  18. Adolescent medicine
    Instruction Indicate one correct answer: 14.01. The maximum norm of blood pressure (in accordance with the method, recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, 1983) in girls is: A) 120/70 mmHg. st .; B) 120/80 mm RT. st .; B) PO / SO mmHg st .; D) 140/80 mm RT. st .; D) 140/80 mm RT. ct. 02/14. The indicator of borderline arterial hypertension in young men aged 15 to 17 years: A) 140/80 mm RT.
  19. Adolescence (adolescence)
    TEENAGE YEARS
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