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Reality of social space
Social space should be called the entire material and spiritual side of human existence, along with communication, human activities and a system of rights and obligations. This should include all the realities of human existence. However, we will single out and specifically consider the independent realities of the objective world, figurative-sign systems and nature, which is quite legitimate.
Further, the subject of our discussion will be the realities of social space, such as communication, the diversity of human activities, as well as the reality of duties and human rights in society.
Communication - mutual relations of people. In Russian psychology, communication is considered as one of the activities.
A person is immersed in a society that ensures his vital activity and development through communication with his own kind. This maintenance is carried out at the expense of the stability of the communication system in the community and the “stability of the personal system in the form of existence, in the public relations or relationships that are realized in communication” 40.
The content of relationships and relationships is reflected primarily in the language, in the language sign. The linguistic sign is an instrument of communication, a means of knowledge and the core of personal meaning for a person.
As an instrument of communication, the language maintains a balance in the social relations of people, realizing the social needs of the latter in mastering the information that is meaningful to everyone.
At the same time, language is a means of knowing - exchanging words, people exchange meanings and meanings. The meaning-content side of the language4 '. The system of verbal signs that make up a language appears in meanings that are understandable to native speakers and correspond to a specific historical moment of its development.
In logic, logical semantics and the science of language, the term “meaning” is used as a synonym for “meaning”. Meaning is used to denote the mental content, the information that is associated with a specific linguistic expression, which is the proper name of the subject. Name - an expression of a language denoting an object (proper name) or a set of objects (common name).
The concept of "meaning" in addition to philosophy, logic and linguistics is used in psychology in the context of the discussion of personal meaning.
Language as the core of personal meaning attaches special significance to the figurative and sign systems of each individual person. Having a lot of meanings and socially significant meanings, each sign carries its own individual meaning for an individual, which is formed due to the individual experience of entering the reality of social space, thanks to the complex individual associations and individual integrative connections that arise in the cerebral cortex. A. N. Leont'ev also wrote about the correlation of meanings and personal meanings in the context of human activity and the motives that motivate it, “Unlike the meanings, personal meanings ... do not have their own“ over individual ”, their own“ non-psychological ”existence. If external sensuality connects the values in the mind of the subject with the reality of the objective world, then the personal meaning connects them with the reality of his life in this world, with its motives. Personal meaning creates the bias of human consciousness. ”
The reality of social space develops in the process of the historical movement of humanity: the language of signs is becoming more and more developed and more and more diverse reflecting the objective reality of the system that determines the existence of man. The language system determines the nature of people's communication, the context that allows communicating representatives of the same language culture to establish the meanings and meanings of words and phrases and to understand each other.
Language has its own characteristics: 1) in the individual psychological existence, expressed in personal meanings; 2) in a subjective difficulty to transfer states, feelings and thoughts.
Psychologically, i.e. in the system of consciousness, values exist through communication and various activities in line with the personal meaning of a person. Personal meaning is a subjective attitude of a person to what he expresses with the help of language signs. “The embodiment of meaning in meanings is a deeply intimate, psychologically meaningful, not at all automatic and instantly occurring process.”
It is the personal meanings that transform the signs of language in the individual consciousness, represent the person as a unique speaker of the language. Communication therefore becomes not only a communication action, not only an activity associated with other activities, but also poetic, creative activity that brings “the joy of communication” (Saint-Exupéry) from a person’s perception of new meanings and meanings unknown to him until then, from the mouth another person.
In informal communication, there may be times when it is difficult for a person to express something that seemed to him to be fully matured, having certain linguistic meanings. “It’s hard to find words” —this is how the state is called when consciousness is ready to design emerging images into a word, but at the same time, a person has difficulty in realizing his own motives disembodied in the palace of the shadows will return "). It also happens that the words picked up and spoken are realized by the speaker as “not at all”. Let us recall Fedor Tyutchev's poem “Silentium!”.
... How can the heart express itself? Other how to understand you? Will he understand what you live? The thought spoken is a lie. Blowing up, revolt the keys, - Eat with them - and keep quiet! ..
Of course, this poem has its own meanings and meanings, but in the extended interpretation it is perfect as an illustration of the problem under discussion.
The reality of social space in the sphere of communication is presented to an individual through a unique set of incarnations of meanings in an individual combination of meaningful values for him, which represent him in the world as, first, a special person, different from other people; secondly, as a person similar to others and thus able to understand (or come closer to understanding) the general cultural meanings and individual meanings of other people.
The reality of social space is also being mastered when a person in his individual development passes through the tests of various types of activity. Of particular importance are the activities through which a person must pass from birth to adulthood.
Activities that determine the child’s entry into human realities. In the process of the historical development of man, labor and training activities were singled out from the syncretic work on the creation of the simplest tools and imitative reproduction. These activities were accompanied by play actions, which, having biological prerequisites for the physical activity of developing young and human ancestors and gradually changing, began to be a playful reproduction of relationships and symbolic instrument actions.
In the individual ontogenesis of modern man society represents him the opportunity to go the way to adulthood and self-determination through the historically established and accepted today, for granted, the so-called leading activities. In ontogenesis for humans, they appear in the following order.
Gaming activities. In game activity (in the developing part of it), a search is primarily carried out for objects — deputies of the objects depicted and a symbolic depiction of objective (cannon and related) actions that demonstrate the nature of relations between people, etc. The game activity trains the sign function: substitution by signs and sign actions; it arises after the manipulation and objective activity and becomes the condition that determines the mental development of the child. Play activity today is the subject of theoretical and practical comprehension for the organization of conditions for the development of a child before school.
Learning activities. The subject of educational activity is the person himself, who seeks to change himself. When a primitive man sought to imitate his fellow tribesman, who had mastered the production of simple tools, he learned to produce the same tools as his more successful counterpart.
Learning activity is always doing, changing yourself. But in order for each new generation to carry out the study effectively, in accordance with the new achievements of progress, a special category of people was required, transferring the means of training to the new generation. These are the scientists who develop the theoretical foundations of methods that promote learning; methodologists, empirically testing the effectiveness of methods; teachers who ask for the execution of mental and practical actions that contribute to the development of students.
Learning activity identifies potential changes in the human cognitive and personal sphere.
Labor activity arose as an expedient activity, thanks to which the development of natural and social forces took place, is taking place and will continue to be met in order to satisfy the historically established needs of the individual person and society.
Labor activity is the determining force of social development; Labor is the main form of human society, the initial condition of human existence.
It is thanks to the creation and preservation of tools mankind stood out from nature, having created the man-made world of objects - the second nature of human existence. Labor became the basis of all aspects of social life.
Labor activity is a deliberately effecting an instrument on the object of labor, as a result of which the object of labor is transformed into the result of labor.
Labor activity was initially associated with the developing human consciousness, which was conceived and developed in labor, in the relationship of people about tools and the subject of labor. A certain image of the result of labor and the image of what labor actions can achieve this result was built in the mind of a person. The production and use of implements of labor constitute "a specific characteristic of the human labor process ..." 45.
Tools of labor are artificial human organs, through which it acts on the object of labor. At the same time, in the form and functions of tools and objects of labor, historically developed generalized methods of labor and subject actions of people, expressed in signs of language, are embodied.
In modern conditions, the degree of interaction of a person with the object of labor has increased significantly. Science penetrates into labor activity, into all its parameters: into the production process of tools and consumer goods, as well as into the organizational culture of labor.
In the organizational labor culture, the system of relations and the conditions of existence of the labor collective, i.e. something that significantly determines the success of the functioning and survival of the organization (team) in the long term.
The bearers of organizational culture are people. However, in groups with a well-established organizational culture, the latter seems to be separated from people and becomes an attribute of the social atmosphere of the collective, which has an active influence on its members. The culture of an organization is a complex interaction of philosophy and ideology of management, the mythology of an organization, value orientations, beliefs, expectations and norms. The organizational culture of work exists in the system of language signs and in the "spirit" of the team, reflecting the latter's readiness for development, for accepting symbols, through which value orientations are "transmitted" to team members. The relations of production in which people enter determine the nature of their work, the nature of communication regarding the content of work, mediate the style of communication. Labor activity is focused on the final product, as well as to receive a monetary equivalent for labor. But in the work itself the conditions for human self-development. Every person who is motivationally involved in the work itself strives to be a professional and a creator.
Thus, the main types of human activity — communication, play, learning, work — constitute the reality of social space.
The relations of people in the sphere of communication, work, learning and games are mediated by the rules that have been established in society, which are represented in society in the form of duties and rights.
Responsibilities h human rights. The reality of social space has an organizing behavior of a person, his way of thinking and motives is the beginning expressed in the system of duties and rights. Each person will only feel sufficiently protected in the conditions of the reality of social space if he takes the existing system of duties and rights as the basis of his being. Of course, the values of duties and rights have the same pulsating mobility in the public consciousness of people in the process of history, like all other values. But in the sphere of individual meanings, duties and rights can acquire key positions for the life orientation of a person.
In his time, C. Darwin wrote: “Man is a social animal. Everyone agrees that man is a social animal. We see this in his dislike for solitude and in his striving for society ... ”46 A person depends on society and cannot do without him. As a social being, a person has formed in his historical development a powerful feeling - a regulator of his social behavior, it is summarized in a short but powerful word “must”, so full of high meaning. "We see in him the noblest of all human qualities, forcing him, without the slightest hesitation, to risk his life for his neighbor, or after due discussion to sacrifice his life for some great goal by virtue of only a deep consciousness of duty or justice" 47. Here Charles Darwin refers to I. Kant, who wrote: “A sense of duty! A marvelous concept, acting on the soul through fascinating arguments of flattery or threats, but by one force of nothing embellished, immutable law and therefore inspiring always respect, if not always submissiveness ... "
The social quality of a person - a sense of duty was formed in the process of building ideals and implementing social control.
The ideal is the norm, a certain image of how a person must manifest himself in life in order to be recognized by society. However, this image is very syncretic, it is difficult to verbal construction. I. Kant at one time expressed himself very definitely: “... We must, however, recognize that the human mind contains not only ideas, but also ideals (italics mine. - V. M), which ... possess practical force (as regulative principles) and underlie the possibility of perfection of certain actions ... Virtue and with it human wisdom in all their purity are the essence of the idea. But the sage (stoic) is the ideal, i.e. a person who exists only in thought, but who completely coincides with the idea of wisdom. As the idea gives the rules, the ideal then serves as a prototype for the complete definition of its copies; and we have no other measure for our actions, except for the behavior of this divine man in us, with whom we compare ourselves, we value ourselves and because of this we correct ourselves, never, however, being able to compare with him. Although one cannot allow the objective reality (existence) of these ideals, one cannot nevertheless be considered as chimeras for this reason: they give the necessary measure to the mind, which needs an understanding of what is in its own way to evaluate and measure its degree and disadvantages. imperfect ”48. When creating and assimilating the reality of social space, humanity through its thinkers always sought to create a moral ideal.
The moral ideal is an idea of the universal norm, a model of human behavior and relations between people. The moral ideal grows and develops in close connection with social, political and aesthetic ideals. At each historical moment, the moral ideal changes its shades depending on the ideology that arises in society, on the direction of the movement of society. However, common human values that have been developed over the centuries remain unchanged in the denomination of their part. In the individual consciousness of people, they act in a feeling called conscience; they determine the behavior of a person in everyday life.
The moral ideal is focused on a large number of external components: laws, the constitution, duties that are immutable for a particular institution where a person studies or works, rules of hostel in the family, in public places and much more. At the same time, the moral ideal has an individual orientation in each individual person; it acquires a unique meaning for it.
The reality of social space is the whole indissoluble complex of sign systems of the objective and natural world, as well as human relations and values. It is precisely into the reality of human existence as a condition that determines individual development and individual human destiny that every person enters from the moment of his birth and remains in it during his earthly life.
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