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Reality of social space
Social space should be called the entire material and spiritual side of human being, along with communication, human activities and the system of rights and obligations. This should include all the realities of human existence. However, we will single out and specifically consider the independent realities of the objective world, figuratively-sign systems and nature, which is completely legitimate.
Further, the subject of our discussion will be such realities of the social space as communication, the diversity of human activities, as well as the reality of duties and human rights in society.
Communication is the mutual relationship of people. In domestic psychology, communication is considered as one of the activities.
Man is immersed in society, which ensures his life and development through communication with his own kind. This maintenance is carried out due to the stability of the communication system in general and “the stability of the personal system in the form of existence, social in nature relations or relationships implemented in communication” 40.
The content of relationships and relationships is reflected primarily in the language, in the linguistic sign. The linguistic sign is an instrument of communication, a means of cognition and the core of personal meaning for a person.
As an instrument of communication, language maintains a balance in the social relations of people, realizing the social needs of the latter in mastering information that is meaningful to everyone.
At the same time, language is a means of cognition - exchanging words, people exchange meanings and meanings. The meaning-content side of the language 4 '. The system of verbal signs that make up the language appears in meanings that are understandable to native speakers and correspond to the specific historical moment of its development.
In logic, logical semantics and the science of language, the term “meaning” is used as a synonym for “meaning”. The meaning is used to denote that mental content, that information that is associated with a specific language expression, which is the proper name of the subject. Name - an expression of the language denoting an object (proper name) or many objects (common name).
The concept of "meaning" in addition to philosophy, logic and linguistics is used in psychology in the context of a discussion of personal meaning.
Language as the core of personal meaning gives particular importance to the figurative and sign systems of each individual person. Having many meanings and socially significant meanings, each sign carries its own individual meaning for an individual, which is formed due to the individual experience of entering the reality of social space, thanks to complex individual associations and individual integrative connections that occur in the cerebral cortex. A. Leontyev also wrote about the correlation of meanings and personal meanings in the context of human activity and the motives that motivate it: “Unlike meanings, personal meanings ... do not have their own“ over individual ”, their“ non-psychological ”existence. If external sensuality connects values in the subject’s consciousness with the reality of the objective world, then personal meaning connects them with the reality of his life in this world, with its motives. Personal meaning creates the bias of human consciousness. ”
The reality of social space develops in the process of the historical movement of mankind: the sign language is becoming more and more developed and more and more diverse in reflecting the objective reality of the system that determines the existence of man. The language system determines the nature of people's communication, the context that allows communicating representatives of one language culture to establish the meanings and meanings of words, phrases and understand each other.
Language has its own characteristics: 1) in an individual psychological existence, expressed in personal senses; 2) in subjective difficulty to convey states, feelings and thoughts.
Psychologically, i.e. in the system of consciousness, meanings exist through communication and various activities in line with the person’s personal meaning. Personal meaning is the subjective attitude of a person to what he expresses with the help of linguistic signs. “The embodiment of meaning in meanings is a deeply intimate, psychologically meaningful, and by no means automatic and instantaneous process.”
It is personal meanings that transform the signs of the language in the individual consciousness that represent a person as a unique carrier of language. Communication therefore becomes not only an action of communication, not only an activity associated with other activities, but also a poetic, creative activity that brings “the joy of communication” (Saint-Exupery) from a person’s perception of new meanings and meanings unknown to him from the mouth another man.
In informal communication, there may be times when it is difficult for a person to express what he thought was quite ripe, having certain linguistic meanings. “It is difficult to find words” - this is usually called the state when the consciousness is ready to form the arising images into words, but at the same time, the person experiences difficulty in realizing his motives (recall from Fedor Tyutchev: “I forgot the word that I wanted to say and the thought the ethereal will return to the palace of shadows. ”) There is also a state where words that are picked up and spoken are recognized by the speaker as “not at all”. Recall the poem of Fedor Tyutchev “Silentium!”.
... How does the heart express itself? How else to understand you? Will he understand what you live? A thought uttered is a lie. Exploding, you will revolt keys, - Eat them - and be silent! ..
Of course, this poem has its meanings and meanings, but in an expanded interpretation it is perfectly suitable as an illustration of the problem under discussion.
The reality of social space in the field of communication appears to an individual through a unique set of incarnations of meanings in an individual combination of meanings meaningful to him, which represent him in the world as, firstly, special, different from other people; secondly, as a person similar to others and thereby able to understand (or come closer to understanding) the general cultural meanings and individual meanings of other people.
The reality of social space is also mastered when a person in his individual development goes through trials with different types of activity. Of particular importance are the activities through which a person has to go from birth to adulthood.
Activities that determine the child’s entry into human realities. In the process of the historical development of man, labor and educational activities stood out from syncretic activity to create simple tools and imitative reproduction on the model. These types of activities were accompanied by game actions, which, having biological prerequisites in the physical activity of developing cubs and young anthropoid ancestors and gradually changing, began to be a playful reproduction of relationships and symbolic gun actions.
In the individual ontogenesis of modern man, society presents him with the opportunity to go the path to adulthood and self-determination through the historically established and accepted today, as a matter of course, the so-called leading activities. In ontogenesis for humans, they appear in the following order.
Game activity. In the game activity (in its developing part), primarily there is a search for objects - deputies of the depicted objects and a symbolic image of objective (weapon and related) actions that demonstrate the nature of relations between people, etc. Game activity trains a sign function: substitution with signs and sign actions; it arises after manipulation and objective activity and becomes a condition that determines the mental development of the child. Game activity today is the subject of theoretical and practical comprehension for organizing the conditions for the development of a child to school.
Educational activity. The subject of educational activity is the person himself, who seeks to change himself. When a primitive man sought to imitate his fellow tribesman who had mastered the production of simple tools, he learned to produce the same tools as his more successful fellow.
Learning activity is always doing, changing oneself. But in order for each new generation to carry out learning effectively, in accordance with the new achievements of progress, a special category of people was required, transmitting the learning tools to the new generation. These are scientists developing the theoretical foundations of teaching-facilitating methods; methodologists empirically testing the effectiveness of methods; teachers who set the ways of performing mental and practical actions that contribute to the development of students.
Educational activity determines the potential changes that occur in the cognitive and personal sphere of a person.
Labor activity arose as a rational activity, thanks to which the development of natural and social forces took place, is happening and will continue to take place to satisfy the historically formed needs of the individual and society.
Labor activity is the determining force of social development; labor is the main form of life of human society, the initial condition of human life.
It is thanks to the creation and preservation of tools that mankind has stood out from nature, having created the man-made world of objects - the second nature of human existence. Labor has become the basis of all aspects of social life.
Labor activity is a consciously carried out impact of the instrument on the subject of labor, as a result of which the subject of labor is transformed into the result of labor.
Labor activity was originally associated with the developing consciousness of man, which was born and formed in labor, in the relationship of people about tools and the subject of labor. In the human mind, a certain image of the result of labor and the image of what labor actions can achieve this result were built. The production and use of tools is “a specific characteristic of the human labor process ...” 45.
Tools are artificial human organs through which he acts on the subject of labor. At the same time, in the form and functions of tools and objects of labor, historically developed generalized methods of labor and objective actions of people, expressed in signs of the language, are embodied.
In modern conditions, the degree of mediated ™ interaction of a person with an object of labor has significantly increased. Science penetrates into labor activity, into all its parameters: into the production process of tools and commodities, as well as into the organizational culture of labor.
In the organizational culture of labor, a system of relations and the conditions of existence of the labor collective are manifested, i.e. something that substantially determines the success of the functioning and survival of the organization (team) in the long run.
Carriers of organizational culture are people. However, in collectives with an established organizational culture, the latter, as it were, separates from people and becomes an attribute of the social atmosphere of the collective, which has an active effect on its members. The organization’s culture is a complex interaction of philosophy and ideology of management, organization mythology, value orientations, beliefs, expectations and norms. The organizational culture of work exists in the system of linguistic signs and in the “spirit” of the team, reflecting the latter’s willingness to develop, to accept the characters through which value orientations are “transmitted” to team members. The production relations that people enter into determine the nature of their work, the nature of their communication about the content of their work, and mediate the style of communication. Labor activity is focused on the final product, as well as on receiving cash equivalent for labor. But the conditions for self-development of a person are laid in the labor activity itself. Each person, motivationally involved in the work itself, aspires to be a professional and a creator.
Thus, the main human activities — communication, play, learning, labor — make up the reality of social space.
The relations of people in the field of communication, work, learning and games are mediated by the rules that have developed in society, which are represented in society in the form of duties and rights.
Responsibilities of human rights. The reality of social space has the organizing behavior of a person, his way of thinking and motives is the beginning, expressed in the system of duties and rights. Each person only in that case will feel sufficiently protected in the conditions of the reality of social space if he takes the existing system of duties and rights as the basis of his being. Of course, the meanings of duties and rights have the same pulsating mobility in the public consciousness of people in the process of history, like any other meanings. But in the sphere of individual meanings, duties and rights can acquire key positions for the life orientation of a person.
C. Darwin once wrote: “Man is a public animal. Everyone will agree that man is a public animal. We see this in his dislike of solitude and in his desire for society ... ”46 A person depends on society and cannot do without it. As a social being, a person has formed a powerful feeling in his historical development - a regulator of his social behavior, it is summarized in the short but powerful word “must”, so full of high significance. “We see in him the noblest of all the properties of a person, forcing him to risk his life for his neighbor without the slightest hesitation, or after due discussion, to sacrifice his life for some great purpose by virtue of only a deep consciousness of duty or justice.” 47 Here C. Darwin refers to I. Kant, who wrote: “A sense of duty! A wonderful concept that acts on the soul through fascinating arguments of flattery or threats, but by the force of an undecorated, immutable law and therefore always inspiring respect, if not always humility ... ”
The social quality of a person - a sense of duty was formed in the process of building ideals and implementing social control.
The ideal is the norm, a certain way of how a person should manifest himself in life in order to be recognized by society. However, this image is very syncretic, difficult to verbal construction. I. Kant at one time expressed himself very definitely: “... We must, however, recognize that the human mind contains not only ideas, but also ideals (italics mine. - V. M.), which ... possess practical force (as regulatory principles) and underlie the possibility of the perfection of certain actions ... Virtue and with it human wisdom in all their purity are the essence of the idea. But the sage (Stoics) is an ideal, i.e. a person who exists only in thought, but who fully coincides with the idea of wisdom. As an idea gives rules, so an ideal then serves as a prototype for the complete definition of its copies; and we have no other measure for our actions, except for the behavior of this divine person in us, with whom we compare ourselves, evaluate ourselves, and thanks to this we are corrected, never, however, being able to equal him. Although it is impossible to admit the objective reality (existence) of these ideals, nevertheless it is impossible to consider them chimeras: they provide the necessary measure of the mind, which needs to understand what is in its own way perfect in order to evaluate and measure the degree and shortcomings of it imperfect ”48. Mankind in creating and mastering the reality of social space through its thinkers has always sought to create a moral ideal.
The moral ideal is the idea of a universal norm, a model of human behavior and relations between people. The moral ideal grows and develops in close connection with social, political and aesthetic ideals. At every historical moment, depending on the ideology arising in society, on the direction of movement of society, the moral ideal changes its nuances. However, universal values worked out over the centuries remain invariable in their part. In the individual consciousness of people, they act in a sense called conscience, determine the behavior of a person in everyday life.
The moral ideal is focused on a large number of external components: laws, the constitution, duties that are indispensable for the particular institution where the person is studying or working, the rules for living in a family, in public places, and much more. At the same time, the moral ideal has an individual orientation in each individual person, acquires a unique meaning for him.
The reality of social space is the entire indissoluble complex of iconic systems of the subject and natural worlds, as well as human relations and values. It is the reality of human existence as a condition that determines individual development and individual human fate that every person enters from the moment of his birth and stays in it during his earthly life.
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Reality of social space
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