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Empirical study design

Essential for developmental psychology is the organization (construction) of empirical research. The method of slicing is most specific in relation to the tasks of developmental psychology. The method of slices as a whole is a statement (measurement) of the state of the object at different stages of its development. A slice study can be organized in two ways: on the principle of so-called transverse or longitudinal sections. With cross sections, people of different ages can be compared at the same time. Groups of subjects of varying ages are selected and their results are compared (for example, they compare how children of six-, eight- and ten-year-olds understand the hidden meaning of proverbs). According to the research, an averaged curve is constructed that clearly demonstrates the picture of improving the process under study - improving understanding of the hidden meaning of proverbs with age. At the same time, it remains unknown why, due to what mechanisms this happens.

The method of longitudinal sections (longitudinal study, longitudinal study, “long track”) is aimed at tracking changes in psychological qualities in the same people for a long time.

So, in the longitudinal study of adult development “Grant study”, launched in 1938, almost 300 junior students of Harvard University took part. Researchers wondered how and why some people succeed in adulthood, while others fail. To do this, they recorded in detail the family history of each student, tested, interviewed, analyzed the behavior of students, evaluating 25 personality traits, and monitored their further development. The successes of adult participants in the study were compared with their youthful personality profiles. It was found that friendliness and sociability, intelligence, a happy childhood and material security do not guarantee mature adaptation.
The traits of the young men who most clearly predicted future success were practicality, organization and integrity of the personality, as well as the acquisition of mentors and role models to follow in early adulthood.

In some areas of developmental psychology, a longitudinal research plan is of particular value, in particular for gerontopsychology. So, many psychologists doubt the finality of the conclusions regarding the effect of aging in the intellectual sphere, which are made by the slice method, by comparing the results of solving intellectual problems by people of 20, 40 and 70 years old. Subjects belonging to the older group, in addition to age, differ in a host of other characteristics: health indicators, level and quality of education received, motivation for participation, etc.

A variant of longitudinality is a biographical method. This can be an analysis of the biographies of great people (such as Dante, Gandhi or Freud) and the reconstruction of biographies of ordinary people of different sex and age, racial, ethnic and professional affiliations based on their interviews. This method involves the study of biographies in order to find some stable, regular characteristics of development, for example, indicators of predictability of development or periods of crises and transitions. To study the life path of a person, a number of methods of the biographical method are used2.

An individual development curve constructed using the longitudinal method more precisely indicates tipping points, moments of qualitative shifts, although the internal causes underlying behavioral phenomena remain hidden.

An important choice is the plan and method of data collection, depending on the purpose of the study. Modern work on developmental psychology, as a rule, is carried out using a whole range of research methods3.
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Empirical study design

  1. Empirical base of research
    A sample of the study was composed of graduate students, students of the continuing education system, teachers of higher educational institutions in the city of Stavropol (North Caucasus State Technical University; Financial and Economic Institute; North Caucasus Social Institute, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute). In a pilot study took
  2. Empirical base and stages of research
    The study involved employees of enterprises and organizations of various industries of the Sverdlovsk region (education, metallurgy, services, trade), owners and heads of organizations, managerial personnel, specialists of various profiles in Yekaterinburg and the Sverdlovsk region. The total number of respondents was 4001 people. An empirical study has been conducted for 10 years.
  3. Empirical base of research
    In total, the study involved 341 people - government employees who acted as experts (2004 - 2007), including: in an empirical study - 315 government employees studying at the Russian Presidential Academy of Public Administration, in a pilot study –26 government employees Administration of the Samara region. Reliability and reliability
  4. Empirical base and sources of research
    In the work on the dissertation, the author relied on materials from state statistics, departmental reporting data, and the results of psychological studies of domestic and foreign psychologists. In the process of performing the dissertation work, the study of documents, materials of conferences, seminars and round tables was used. The basis of the empirical base of the study is the results
  5. . Goals, objectives, hypotheses, scheme and research program
    The subject of this study is the age-psychological characteristics of the affective component of gender role identity and the influence of cultural, historical and family factors on its formation. The object of the study is the affective component of gender role identity. The purpose of the study: the study of age-psychological characteristics of the affective component of gender role identity.
  6. Stages of theoretical and empirical research
    The first stage (1998-2004) - the goal was a theoretical justification of the psychological-acmeological concept as a basis for ethno-acmeology of education, empirical identification of psychological-acmeological features of subjects of a multi-ethnic educational environment. A historical and critical analysis of the approaches of domestic and foreign researchers to understanding the phenomena of ethnic
  7. Empirical base of research
    A sample of the study was 380 people, of which: 187 - teachers of Moscow schools, 159 - students, 34 - teachers of pedagogical universities. The reliability and reliability of the study was provided by the initial methodological principles, theoretical validity, diversity and reliability of the methods used, representativeness of the sample, mathematical processing
  8. Empirical base and stages of research
    The empirical basis of the study is a sample of 2282 specialists in various fields of activity: the administration of the Stupinsky district of the Moscow region - 13 people .; construction company "TODESiK" (Podolsk) - 38 people; A-Line Consulting Agency - 47 people; Personnel Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation - 23 people; employees of medical institutions - 114 people .; spheres
  10. About empirical research (except for the works of 2nd year students)
    The most responsible and serious part of the work. It is important to leave about 2 (preferably 3) months of time on it, so that it is possible to understand everything and not die from fear of protection and from shame during protection. The name is also easy: usually the empirical part is called "empirical doc ..." and then we write the chosen topic. In order to do a good empirical part of the work, you
  11. “An empirical study of the formation and development of multiethnic competence of subjects of education”
    The third chapter provides a general description of an empirical study of 2127 respondents. Elementary school students — 402 children, secondary school students from grades 5 to 11 — 250 students, parents of primary school students — 83 people, university students — 489 people, secondary school teachers — 184 people, psychologists, social workers, were involved in the empirical research process. ,
  12. Justification of the conceptual basis of empirical research
    At present, a systematic approach is increasingly being used in psychology; experience is being accumulated in constructing systemic descriptions of objects of study. The need for this approach is due to the enlargement and complexity of the studied systems, the needs of managing large systems and the integration of knowledge. As part of our dissertation research, a systematic approach is applied to the study of the phenomenon
  13. An experiment as a method of empirical research
    The experiment involves the active intervention of the researcher in the subject's activity in order to create conditions in which a psychological fact is revealed. The researcher deliberately creates and changes the conditions under which the human activity proceeds, sets goals and judges the psychological characteristics of the test subject based on the results. Allocate laboratory and natural
  14. Methodology and methodology of empirical sociological research
    The methodology and methodology of empirical sociological
  15. The third chapter "An empirical study of the cognitive and emotional components of feelings of love in young people and adults"
    The third chapter, “An empirical study of the cognitive and emotional components of a feeling of love in young people and adults,” is devoted to describing an empirical study, analyzing and interpreting the results obtained, corresponding to the goals and objectives, and formulating conclusions; consists of 3 paragraphs. In paragraph 3.1. The main stages, procedure and research methods
  16. An empirical study of the psychological characteristics of the personality of women military personnel
    An empirical study of the psychological characteristics of the personality of women
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