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Sociological (cultural) approach to the study of human mental development

Socium as an explanatory principle in the French sociological school. The founder of the sociological trend in psychology is considered to be E. Durkheim. His work had a serious impact on the development of psychological research on the relationship between the individual and society. He assigned a decisive role in the development of the child to the social factor, the basis of which is the collective representation of large communities of people. Collective representations are a holistic system of ideas, customs, religious beliefs, moral principles, public institutions, writing, etc. They are independent of the individual, total (universal). The development of the child occurs in the process of assimilation of social experience due to imitation, which in social life has the same meaning as heredity in biology. With the ability to imitate, a child is born. In the French sociological school, a mechanism was identified for the formation of the child’s inner world - internalization as a transition of the external to the internal.

A prominent representative of the French sociological school is P. Janet. He believed

that the human psyche is socially determined and that its development consists in the formation of a system of diverse ties with nature and society. Among them, the most significant social actions, expressed in cooperative relationships. Social relationships between people are the basis for the development of each person.

French genetic psychology. Orientation to the study of an individual individual in the specific social conditions of his life is characteristic of the French school of genetic psychology. The greatest contribution to the development of problems of genetic psychology was made by A. Vallon and R. Zazzo.

A. Vallon emphasized the inextricable connection of society and the psyche of the child. The human child is a genetically social being, the social nature of man does not appear through external influences, but is initially included in his biology. A. Vallon specifically investigated the origins of human behavior, the conditions for the emergence of specifically human forms of behavior. He convincingly showed that among conditions affecting mental development, the most important, especially in the first years of life, are people's relationships and ways of their behavior. The first poses of the child are made out through the actions of other people. Only facial expressions visible on the face of another person for the first time gain their significance for the child. It’s only through adult reactions that laughter and

the crying of a child turns into a special language - the language of emotions. Emotion is the first form of social communication, still global and undivided, preparing the internal representations of the child. It is through mutual exchange with others that the self of the child is singled out from a certain initial unity and his consciousness is born.
Mental development of the child is carried out through quality transitions from one stage to another; transitions themselves are made through development crises.

These studies were continued by R. Zazzo. Being both a student of A. Wallon and A. Gesell, he investigated the interaction of heredity of the environment in mental development. He believed that these factors are not opposed to each other: thanks to his heredity, man creates a new environment; the environment gives heredity the opportunity for self-expression, orientation, design. R.Zazzo divides the entire development of the child into stages. The first three years of his life are analyzed by him on the basis of strict physical and mental criteria identified by A. Wallon. He uses data on the development of thinking, the emotional sphere. At the same time, he seeks to combine a psychological study of the evolution of children's behavior with an analysis of the course of the child's organic maturation. Subsequent stages of mental development are distinguished on the basis of criteria borrowed from the practice of schooling. In studies conducted by R. Zazzo and his students, the longitudinal method or the method of longitudinal sections (a long study of individual children or a small sample of them) were actively used. The inclusion of this method in the arsenal of widely used methods of developmental psychology is a distinctive feature of this school.

American School of Cultural Anthropology. The founder of the school is an outstanding anthropologist, ethnographer, linguist F. Boas. This school conducted comparative studies of social life and culture of nationalities that are in the early stages of historical development. The main methodological setting of the research was the statement of the cultural conditionality of the consciousness and personality of a person in the course of his mental development. It was assumed that if the behaviors of younger generations are determined by biological factors, then they should be invariant and repeated in all societies and cultures, regardless of their level of socio-economic development, social structure, family structure, etc.

A prominent representative of the school of F. Boas and ethnography of childhood is M. Mead. Her research showed that the nature and abilities of people to a decisive degree depend on what they learn and on the structure of the society in which they were born and raised. M. Mead argues that human nature is very flexible, accurately and specifically reacts to various social conditions. Differences between members of different cultures, as well as differences between individuals within the same culture, almost completely come down to differences in their living conditions, especially in the early

childhood. Moreover, the form in which these conditions are realized is determined by culture.
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Sociological (cultural) approach to the study of human mental development

  1. Acmeological approach to the study of man as a subject of development and self-development
    High professionalism and creative skill in its implementation by a variety of specialists is the main human resource, which becomes the most important factor in the optimal solution of pressing problems. In this sociocultural context, acmeology, a new integratively complex science, is of particular importance. It is she who studies the laws and technologies of the development of such peaks
  2. Approach to the mental development of man in the Middle Ages
    The issues of mental development, and especially the formation of a socially adapted personality, received new development in the Middle Ages, from the 3rd century on. to the 14th century During this period, religion had a serious impact on the development of the science of the soul. Since the issues of the soul, spiritual life and self-improvement became the subject of religion, the subject of psychology also changed, which gradually began to turn from the science of the soul into
  3. Approaches to the study of human life
    The first (and earliest) idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of man emphasized the uniqueness of the individual. The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances. The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as age-related periodization of life
  4. Approaches to the study of human life
    The first (and earliest) (idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of a person emphasized the uniqueness of a person). The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances. The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as age-related periodization of life
  5. Bioeconomic approach to the study of the problem of the extreme state of the human body
    Clinicians' appeal to fundamental generalizing categories is motivated by the search for effective ways to solve practical problems. Serious thoughts at the bedside of a seriously ill patient inevitably lead to the conclusion that a certain unifying approach to the analysis of a multi-level disability is necessary. And this approach is persistently associated with the depletion of the internal thermodynamic potential,
  6. Acmeological approach to the study of the development of a mature personality
    The description of acmeology as an independent science in the system of human knowledge will be incomplete if we do not conduct a comparative analysis of the acmeological position and approaches to solving the important interdisciplinary problem of personality development in relation to the approaches adopted in psychology. Such an analysis will make it possible to more clearly outline the subject and object areas of acmeology and the circle of problems to be solved. Originality and
  7. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AS A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: A PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
    MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AS A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: PSYCHOANALYTICAL
  8. Normative approach to the study of human development
    One of the representatives of this approach, A. Gesell (1880-1961) received a pedagogical and medical education. For more than thirty years, he worked at the Yale Psychoclinic, on the basis of which the well-known Gesell Institute for Child Development was later created. There, to this day, the ontogenesis of the psyche is studied, clinical and pedagogical studies are conducted. Gesell's significant contribution to age
  9. Indicators of the child’s mental development and methods for their study
    The indicators of the child’s mental development include: - the development of the child’s cognitive sphere (perception, attention, memory, imagination, thinking); - the formation of a system of personal relationships (emotions, needs, motives, attitudes, value orientations, orientation, etc.); - mastery of a system of diverse practical and mental actions that provide an opportunity
  10. Comprehensive study of human development at the stage of adulthood
    Acmeology, as mentioned above, studies the phenomenology, patterns and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his adulthood, and especially when he reaches the highest level in this development, which usually means his maturity quality. The degree of maturity of a person and the so-called peak of this maturity, or, as it is also called, acme, is a multidimensional state
  11. Comprehensive study of human development at the stage of adulthood
    Acmeology, as mentioned above, studies the phenomenology, patterns and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his adulthood, and especially when he reaches the highest level in this development, which usually means his maturity quality. The degree of maturity of a person and the so-called peak of this maturity, or, as it is also called, acme, is a multidimensional state
  12. STADIUM OF MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: THE PROBLEM OF PERIODIZING DEVELOPMENT IN ONTOGENESIS
    STADIUM OF MENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: THE PROBLEM OF PERIODIZING DEVELOPMENT IN
  13. Naturalistic concepts of human mental development
    Historically, the evolutionary-biological or naturalistic approach was the first to explain the processes of the child’s mental development. Among his supporters are psychologists from different schools in psychology (introspectionism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis, etc.); prominent representatives were S.Hall, C. Buler, V. Stern, E. Klapared, A. Gesell, Z. Freud and others. This direction is made up of various
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