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The formation of age (child) psychology as an independent field of psychological science

In the psychological teachings of past eras (in the period of antiquity, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance), many important questions of the mental development of children1 have already been posed.

In the works of the ancient Greek scientists Heraclitus, Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the conditions and factors of the formation of the behavior and personality of children, the development of their thinking, creativity and abilities were considered, the idea of ​​a harmonious mental development of a person was formulated.

During the Middle Ages, from the 3rd to the 14th centuries, more attention was paid to the formation of a socially adapted personality, the education of the required personality qualities, the study of cognitive processes and methods of influencing the psyche.

In the Renaissance (E. Rotterdam, R. Bacon, J. Komensky), the organization of training and teaching based on humanistic principles came to the fore, taking into account the individual characteristics of children and their interests.

In the studies of philosophers and psychologists of the New Age, R. Descartes, B. Spinoza, J. Locke, D. Gartley, J.Zh. Rousseau discussed the problem of the interaction of factors of heredity and environment and their influence on mental development. Two extreme positions have been outlined in understanding the determination of human development, which are found (in one form or another) and in the works of modern psychologists1:

-nativism (conditionality by nature, heredity, internal forces), represented by the ideas of Rousseau;

empiricism (the decisive influence of learning, life experience, external factors), originating in the works of Locke.

Gradually, knowledge about the stages of the formation of the psyche of the child, about age characteristics expanded, but the child was still regarded as a rather passive creature, malleable material, which, with skillful guidance and training of an adult, could be transformed in any desired direction.

In the second half of the XIX century. objective prerequisites have emerged for highlighting child psychology as an independent branch of psychological science. Among the most important factors are the needs of society in the new organization of the education system; the progress of development ideas in evolutionary biology; development of objective research methods in psychology.

The requirements of pedagogical practice were recognized in connection with the development of universal education, which became the need for social development in the new conditions of industrial production. Teachers and practitioners needed well-grounded recommendations regarding the content and pace of training for large groups of children; they found that they needed teaching methods in the group.
Questions were raised about the stages of mental development, its driving forces and mechanisms, i.e. about those patterns that need to be considered when organizing the pedagogical process.

Implementation of the idea of ​​development. The evolutionary biological theory of C. Darwin brought new postulates to the field of psychology - about adaptation as the main determinant of mental development, about the genesis of the psyche, about its passage through its development of certain regular stages.

Physiologist and psychologist I.M. Sechenov developed the idea of ​​the transition of external actions into the internal plane, where in a transformed form they become the psychic qualities and abilities of a person - the idea of ​​interiorization of mental processes. Sechenov wrote that for general psychology, the important, even the only, method of objective research is precisely the method of genetic observation.

The emergence of new objective and experimental research methods in psychology. The introspection method (self-observation) was not applicable to the study of the psyche of young children.

The German scientist, Darwinist W. Preyer, in the book “The Soul of a Child” (1882) presented the results of his daily systematic observations of the development of his daughter from birth to three years1; he tried to carefully trace and describe the moments of the emergence of cognitive abilities, motor skills, will, emotions and speech. Preyer outlined the sequence of stages of development of some aspects of the psyche, concluded that the hereditary factor is significant. He was offered an exemplary sample for keeping a diary of observations, outlined research plans, identified new problems (for example, the problem of the relationship of various aspects of mental development).

The merit of Preyer, who is considered the founder of child psychology, is the introduction of an objective scientific observation method into the scientific practice of studying the earliest stages of child development.

The experimental method developed by W. Wundt to study sensations and simple feelings turned out to be extremely important for child psychology. Soon, accessibility for experimental research and other, much more complex areas of the psychic, such as thinking, will, speech, was discovered. The ideas of researching the “psychology of peoples” by analyzing the products of creative activity (the study of fairy tales, myths, religion, language), put forward by Wundt later, also enriched the main fund of methods of developmental psychology and opened up previously inaccessible opportunities for the study of children's psyche.
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The formation of age (child) psychology as an independent field of psychological science

  1. THE ORIGIN OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDEPENDENT AREA OF PSYCHOLOGY
    THE ORIGIN OF AGE PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDEPENDENT AREA OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
  2. Prerequisites for the formation of developmental psychology and developmental psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    The design of developmental psychology (child or developmental psychology) as an independent branch of scientific knowledge dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Two directions were united, until that time developing in parallel and independent of each other. These are studies of child development that have been associated with science and medicine, as well as ethnographic studies of childhood and language, mainly
  3. Isolation of developmental psychology and developmental psychology into an independent field of psychological science
    Isolation of developmental psychology and developmental psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological
  4. The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science
    Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with the battle, the personality of a soldier, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; stand out clearly
  5. Characteristics of developmental psychology, developmental psychology as a science
    Age psychology is a branch of psychological science that studies the facts and patterns of human development, the age dynamics of its psyche. The object of study of developmental psychology is a normal, healthy person developing and changing in ontogenesis. Development Psychology highlights age-related changes in people's behavior and seeks to explain these changes, to reveal patterns
  6. From the history of the formation of psychology as a science
    The concept of "psychology", as sources most often indicate, first appears in 1590 in the writings of the German theologian Hocklenius; it was first introduced into the scientific language in the 30s of the 18th century by the German scientist Christian Wolf (1679-1754), the author of the books “Rational Psychology” and “Empirical Psychology”. This, of course, did not mean that thoughts about the soul, and even more so, ideas about it arose only with
  7. The history of psychology as a science
    History of psychology as
  8. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    At present, more than ever, the hopes of military specialists and leaders of all levels are focused on military psychology. These expectations are associated with the special - applied role of military psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activity of troops in both peacetime and wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat manuals of the types of the Armed Forces of a section on
  9. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Training issues: 1. The subject of military psychology 2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Everyday tasks performed by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a military man and military collectives in conditions of various types of military
  10. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
  11. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDUSTRY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
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