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The influence of an adult on the development of the personality of a preschooler
Preconditions for personal development. Developing, the child learns new psychological traits and behaviors, thanks to which he becomes a small member of human society.
In preschool age, a comparatively stable inner world is acquired, which gives grounds for the first time to call the child "a person, although, of course, a person who is not yet fully formed, capable of further development and improvement.
The conditions for the development of a preschool child differ significantly from the conditions of the previous age stage. Significantly increased requirements for his behavior by adults. The central requirement is the observance of the rules of behavior in society, binding on all, and the norms of public morality. The growing opportunities for cognition of the surrounding world take the child’s interests beyond the narrow circle of “people close to him,” make those forms of relationships that exist between adults in serious activities (learning, work) available for initial development. The child engages in joint activities with peers, learns to coordinate with they should take their actions into account, take into account the interests and opinions of their comrades. Throughout pre-school childhood, a change and complication of the child’s activity takes place, presenting high demands I not only to perception, thinking, memory, but also to the ability to organize their behavior.
All this gradually, step by step, forms the personality of the child, and each new shift in the formation of personality changes the influence of conditions, increases the possibilities of further education. The conditions of personality development are so closely intertwined with development itself that it is practically impossible to separate them.
The development of a child’s personality includes two aspects. One of them is that the child gradually begins to understand the world around him and becomes aware of his place in it, which gives rise to new types of motives of behavior, under the influence of which the child performs certain actions. The other side is the development of feelings and will. They ensure the effectiveness of these motives, the stability of behavior, its well-known independence from changes in external circumstances.
The main way the influence of adults on the development of the personality of children is through the organization of their assimilation of moral standards that govern the behavior of people in society. These norms are adopted by the child under the influence of patterns and rules of behavior. Models of behavior for children are primarily adults themselves - their actions, relationships. The most significant impact on the child is the behavior of his immediate surrounding loved ones. He is inclined to imitate them, adopt their manner of borrowing from them an assessment of people, events, things. However, the matter is not limited to loved ones. A child of preschool age gets acquainted with the life of adults in many ways - observing their work, listening to stories, poems, fairy tales. The behavior of those people who cause the love, respect and approval of others acts as a model for him. The behavior of peers who are approved and popular in the children's group can also serve as a model for the child. Finally, behavioral patterns presented in the actions of fairy-tale characters endowed with certain moral traits are of considerable importance.
The decisive moment in mastering behavior patterns that go beyond the behavior of people around the child is the assessment that other adults, children, characters of stories and fairy tales give to the people to whom the child is attached, whose opinion is most authoritative for him.
Preschool children show great interest in behavior patterns. So, for example, listening to a fairy tale or a story, they always try to find out who is good and who is bad, do not tolerate any uncertainty in this regard and often try to evaluate even inanimate objects from this point of view. After listening to the story of a boy who got lost in the forest and was saved by a woodcutter peasant, a child of five says: “Uncle is good, he found the boy, and the forest is bad, he lost him.” After listening to a number of Russian fairy tales about Ivan the Fool, a boy of four and a half years old asked: “Mom, are fools good or bad?”
Adults teach the child the rules of behavior. The rules, which are becoming more complicated during preschool childhood, organize the daily behavior of children and provide exercise in positive actions. By presenting requirements to children and evaluating their actions, adults thus ensure that children comply with the rules. Gradually, the children themselves begin to evaluate their actions on the basis of ideas about how behaviors are expected from others.
At a younger preschool age, children learn the rules; associated with cultural and hygienic skills, compliance with the "regime, the rules for handling toys. They not only obey the requirements of adults, but they themselves strive to master the rule. In kindergarten, children turn to teachers with statements and complaints about violation of the rules of conduct ”by their peers. These statements most often do not constitute shedding, but a kind of request to confirm the rule to indicate its bindingness for all.
Children sit in chairs arranged in a semicircle in the middle of the room. A teacher with a book sits on them in the same low chair. Now start reading the tale.
Children already know that you can sit in any free chair, you also know that you can’t move a chair from a place. However, everyone wants to be closer to the teacher, and everyone is attracted by a book with beautiful pictures. One of the children does not stand it and, grabbing his chair with both hands, without rising from the seat, drags him to the teacher. Several votes at once:
- V. A.! B. AL And he ... is moving towards you. He is moving towards you.
Lorik and Lucy grab their chairs in the same way as their friend, who violated the rule, but remained in place. They scream the most. With their whole body they move forward to the teacher. We see from their expressive poses and facial expressions what efforts Lorik and Luce need to stay in place.
“You can’t do this,” the teacher says calmly, referring to the disturbed one, “everyone needs to sit in their places.”
She sends the offender to the place, and everyone calms down. (From the observations of V. A. Gorbacheva.)
In some cases, a statement about the behavior of another child is aimed at clarifying a new, unknown rule, it makes sense to ask whether this can be done or not.
Dodik glides his hands on the smoothly polished and varnished surface of the table.
“It's me skating,” he says cheerfully to the approaching Tolya. Tolya smiles, looks at his comrade curiously. Turns his head towards the teacher; continuing to smile, for several seconds holds up an interrogative look at her. He looks at Dodik again. Goes to the teacher.
- Yu. A.! And what does Dodik do ... - he says uncertainly and with a nod of his head points towards Dodik. Looks questioningly at Yu. A.
“You can do that,” the teacher says.
Tolya becomes next to Dodik.
Start playing together. From friction on the surface of the table a specific whistle is obtained. Both boys laugh cheerfully. (From the observations of V. A. Gorbacheva.)
In middle and especially older preschool age, the adoption of the rules of relationships with other children is highlighted. Complicating the activities of children leads to the fact that often there is a need to take into account the point of view of a friend, his rights and interests. It is not easy for children to learn the rules of relationships, and they often at first apply them formally, not understanding the features of this particular case. Mastering the rules of relationships occurs only as a result of the experience gained by children in the practice of changing, breaking and restoring these rules.
Claim for recognition. After the emergence of an emotional attitude to oneself as “good” and primary identification with one’s gender, the child has a new socially necessary education - the desire to meet the requirements of adults, the desire to be recognized. The positive side of the desire to be recognized is a moral feeling, or conscience. Conscience is summarized in everyday relationships between people in the word "must." The sense of duty as the highest achievement of the spiritual culture of mankind through education becomes the achievement of a specific person. The moral formation of personality is organized by the knowledge that the child receives; moral habits of behavior that a child learns in the process of communicating with people around him; emotional experiences of their haste and failure in relationships with other people.
Throughout preschool age, the degree of awareness with which children begin to comply with the rules of behavior changes. Children of primary and secondary preschool age get used to follow the rules and sometimes find even excessive "love of order", not agreeing with the slightest violation of it.
By senior preschool age, the fulfillment of rules of habit is replaced by conscious fulfillment, based on an understanding of their meaning. During this period, children not only themselves begin to obey the rules, but also monitor their implementation by other children.
Of great importance in the assimilation of patterns and rules of behavior is the development in preschool children of a sense of pride and a sense of I type, which make the child reconcile his actions with the ratings and expectations of adults. A preschooler begins to feel a sense of pride, not only about performing adult-approved actions, but also about his own positive qualities (courage, truthfulness, willingness to share with others). He kind of tries on his behavior to positively evaluated samples, realizing that the similarity with them will give him reason to be proud of himself.
The feeling of shame, which in early childhood is caused, as a rule, by direct intervention of an adult, arises in a preschooler even in those cases when he himself understands that he didn’t do what was expected of him: he violated the rule, departed from a positively evaluated sample. The child is ashamed of the suppression of cowardice, rudeness, greed, impolite, etc.
At preschool age, as well as at an early age, • the child’s emotional dependence on the adult remains. Behavior of a troglos constantly determines the activity of the behavior and activity of the child.
It has been established that if an adult is disposed towards a child, shows compassion for his success and empathy for failure, then the child maintains good emotional health, a willingness to act and overcome obstacles even in case of failure. In the conditions of establishing a positive relationship with an adult, the child trusts him, easily comes into contact with surrounding children and other adults.
The alienated attitude of an adult towards a child significantly reduces his social activity: the child closes in on himself, becomes constrained, insecure, ready to cry, or begins to frustrate and spill his aggression on his peers. Most children, in conditions of an alienated attitude from an adult, stop their activities, become lethargic and indifferent. Part of the children, on the contrary, can increase the pace of work, but at the same time, the productivity of activities still drops sharply. The negative attitude of an adult, which he demonstrates to the child, causes him typical reactions: the child either seeks to overcome the barrier of alienation and establish contact with the adult, or closes itself and seeks to avoid communication.
The need for love. It is established that the love of another and love for another person acts as the first, most urgent need. A special place is occupied by the child’s love for the mother. The satisfaction of all the needs of the child is carried out through the mother, in her is the source of all his joys, feelings of security and emotional well-being. The child needs immediate manifestations on the part of the mother and tries by all means to attract her attention.
Anna was considered a model girl. Pierre, her brother, was a terrible child. Anna could not be reproached for anything. She guessed all the wishes of her parents. But on the other hand, Pierre’s leprosy was in the language of the whole family, and mom and dad mostly dealt with it.
And then one day - a surprise: Anna was capricious. Mom scolded her, but saw the very happy face of the girl.
- I am so pleased that you scold me! She said to mom.
- But why? - the mother was surprised.
- Because then you study with me! (From material L: Pernu.)
A young child is most attached to the mother or to the one who replaces her. But later, in preschool age, he already begins to discover the need for affection and recognition of many loved ones.
The motive for establishing and maintaining a positive relationship with an adult is one of the leading factors determining the social development of a child. The relationship of the child with the adult largely depends on the content of communication on the part of the adult.
In conditions of emotional positive attitude from an adult, the child trusts this adult with confidence, strives to be successful in activities and to fulfill the rules of behavior known to him. Sociability and benevolence of an adult act as conditions for the development of positive social qualities in a child.
Alienation, irritability and even inattention on the part of the adult lead to the fact that the child seeks to avoid unpleasant emotions and closes. Alienation of an adult can lead to the development of such negative qualities as isolation, aggression, lies, flattery, obedience and humility.
In a relationship with a child, an adult must subtly select emotional forms of influence. Positive and negative forms of influence on the child should not arise spontaneously (depending on the mood of the adult), but turn into a kind of communication technique, where the main background is positive emotions, and alienation is used as a form of censure of the child for serious misconduct.
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