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Youth as a psychological age

Throughout the history of mankind, the process of growing up lengthens with the growth of requirements (professional, legal, moral, etc.) for a member of society, and taking into account the ability of society to bear additional costs for the long-term maintenance and training of the younger generation. The youthful age was distinguished historically recently, and it became a universal phenomenon that encompasses both boys and girls and all sectors of society only from the end of the 19th century, with the development of industrialization and urbanization. The youth period is part of the expanded transitional phase from childhood to adulthood, more precisely, from adolescence to an independent adult life. However, youth is a relatively independent period of life, which has its own value.

The chronological boundaries of youth are defined differently in psychology. The border between adolescence and adolescence is rather arbitrary, and in some periodization schemes (mainly in Western psychology), ages from 14 to 17 years are considered to be the end of adolescence, and in others they are considered youth.

The upper boundary of the period of youth is even more blurred, because historically and socially determined and individually changeable. Why is it so difficult to determine the moment of crossing the border of adulthood?

The term "adulthood" is ambiguous. Biological maturity is determined by the achievement of puberty, the ability to bear children; social - economic independence, acceptance of the roles of an adult, the concept of psychological maturity is associated with a mature personal identity. The criterion for achieving adulthood (growing up) in human society is the mastery of culture, a system of knowledge, values, norms, social traditions, preparedness for the implementation of various types of labor.

The interpretation of youth as a period of ontogenetic development depends on the fundamental principles of the authors of one or another approach.

Biogenetic theories believe that it is biological growth processes that determine all other aspects of development, and consider youth primarily as a stage in the development of an organism, characterized by a powerful growth of various abilities and functions and achievements of the highest level.

Psychoanalytic theories (3. Freud, A. Freud) see a certain stage of psychosexual development in youth, when the influx of instinctive energy of the libido must be compensated by the protective mechanisms of the self. The struggle of tendencies on the part of Ono and I is manifested in increasing anxiety and increasing conflict situations, which gradually as a new harmony is established, I and It are overcome.

In contrast to psychoanalysis, E. Spranger believed that in adolescence the individual grows into the culture, "into the objective and normative spirit of this era."

In the psychosocial theory of E. Erickson during adolescence and youth, the central task of achieving identity, creating a consistent image of oneself in a multiplicity of choices (roles, partners, communication groups, etc.) should be solved.

Sociological theories of youth consider it primarily as a certain stage of socialization, as a transition from dependent childhood to independent and responsible adult activity with decisive determination on the part of society.

Psychological theories attach the greatest importance to the subjective side, the characteristic features of the inner world and the self-consciousness of the growing individual, his contribution as an active creator of his own growing up.
A variety of individual options for the transition to adulthood has led to the fact that in recent decades, researchers are increasingly using the concept of tasks and development. First of all, they were formulated in the field of youth psychology. The solution of age-related problems is defined as the appearance of a person's ability to solve certain problems.

So, R. Havighurst in the period of growing up identified such age-related tasks:

- the adoption of their own appearance, awareness of the characteristics of their body and the formation of skills to effectively use it (in work, sports, etc.);

- assimilation of the male or female role (folding the individual structure of one’s tender behavior, one’s “image” of the gender role, the internal position of a man or woman; for example, for a girl it can be the image of a “Turgenev girl”, “her board” girl or “fatal beauty ");

- establishing new and more mature relationships with peers of both sexes;

- gaining emotional independence from parents and other adults;

- preparation for a professional career, training is aimed at obtaining a profession (at a university or directly at the workplace, and even at school - with a differentiated attitude to different subjects, when attending preparatory courses);

- preparation for marriage and family life, the acquisition of knowledge and social readiness to assume the responsibility associated with partnership and family;

- the formation of socially responsible behavior, civic engagement (including political, ideological, environmental, etc.);

- building an internal system of values ​​and ethical consciousness as a guide for behavior.

Development tasks include orienting and determining one's place in the adult world, accepting and mastering social roles, resolving role conflicts, and further improving strategies to overcome difficulties. Some of these tasks are more characteristic of the first period of adulthood, of adolescence, while others are of youth.

In Russian psychology, youth is seen as the psychological age of transition to independence, a period of self-determination, the acquisition of mental, ideological and civic maturity, the formation of a worldview, moral consciousness and self-awareness. Most often, researchers identify early adolescence (from 15 to 18 years) and late adolescence (from 18 to 23 years).
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Youth as a psychological age

  1. SENIOR SCHOOL: EARLY YOUTH (FROM 15 TO 17 YEARS)
    14-16 years - a transitional period between adolescence and youth. At this age, self-awareness develops, the importance of their own values ​​increases, although children are still largely subject to external influences. Often youth is considered stormy, combining it in one period with adolescence. The search for the meaning of life, its place in this world can become especially intense. There are new
  2. SENIOR SCHOOL: EARLY YOUTH (FROM 15 TO 17 YEARS)
    The teenager quickly went beyond school interests and, feeling himself an adult, in various ways tried to join the life of elders. But, having acquired much greater independence than before, he remained a schoolboy, still dependent on his parents. He remained at the level of his teenage subculture. In fact, adolescence is a prolonged childhood, from which a child with
  3. Senior school age: early youth (16, 17 years old)
    The teenager quickly went beyond school interests and, feeling himself an adult, in various ways tried to join the life of elders. But, having acquired much greater independence than before, he remained a schoolboy, still dependent on his parents. He remained at the level of his teenage subculture. In fact, adolescence is a prolonged childhood, from which a child with
  4. Psychological aspects of the meaning of life in early adolescence
    I found that the most interesting person among my friends is myself. (S. Kierkegaard) Many psychologists define the period of early youth as important, unique, but at the same time difficult, critical, and conflict. A developing personality suddenly discovers that within it there is a whole new world of experiences that lives by its own laws, a world frightening and alluring at the same time.
  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF AGE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (CHILDHOOD. ADOLESCENCE. YOUTH.)
    PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF AGE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (CHILDHOOD. ADOLESCENCE.
  6. Professional and psychological preparedness for activity as a psychological problem
    A psychological analysis of the sources and results of practical studies of the essence and dynamics of the development of psychological preparedness for professional activity is carried out, the concepts of its categories such as psychological readiness, stability, preparedness and their relationship with the specifics of a particular activity are examined. Keywords: psychological readiness, psychological
  7. Psychological health and personality maturity as the goals of age-psychological counseling
    The word "consultation" comes from the Latin "consultare", which means to confer, consult, take care. DH Blosher identifies the essential features of psychological counseling that distinguish this type of psychological assistance from psychotherapy, which include, for example, counseling focused on a clinically healthy person; problem-oriented counseling,
  8. Countering the psychological operations of the enemy as a task of psychological support of modern combat
    The history of wars and armed conflicts convincingly confirms the fact that they are waged, won and lost by people, and not by airplanes, bombs, tanks. The course and outcome of battles are to a decisive extent determined by how mobilized and what the spiritual and physical capabilities of the soldiers are directed at. Even in ancient times, the most talented commanders understood that to achieve victory over the enemy
  9. Psychological features of student age
    Student age (youth) is the final stage of socialization. The activity and role structure of the individual at this stage are already acquiring a number of new, adult qualities. The main social task of this age is the choice of a profession. The choice of profession and type of educational institution inevitably differentiates the life paths of girls and boys, with all the ensuing socio-psychological consequences.
  10. The psychological concept of age
    Age (in psychology) is a specific, relatively time-limited stage of the individual’s mental development and his development as an individual, characterized by a combination of regular physiological and psychological changes that are not related to the difference in individual characteristics [7]. The first attempt at a systematic analysis of the category of psychological age belongs to L. S. Vygotsky.
  11. Psychological characteristics of the personality of participants in local conflicts in the conditions of their return from a traumatic situation as an object and subject of psychological research
    Recently, the work of both psychiatrists and psychologists (Yu.A. Aleksoandrovsky, L.N. Sobchik, L.I. Spivak and others) has been devoted to studying the effect on humans of extreme psycho-traumatic stressful situations. This is due to an increase in the number of conflicts with hostilities, natural disasters and catastrophes. Of particular practical importance is the study of situations of a person's return from
  12. Maturity and psychological age
    The development of a person in adulthood is closely related to the dynamics of his psychological age. There are three interconnected, but not coincidental ages: chronological (passport), physical (or biological) and psychological. It is well known that the physical age of a person is often very different from the passport. For example, at 40, he may look and, most importantly, have the condition of all
  13. Leading activities and psychological neoplasms of age
    The adolescent period itself is rather heterogeneous in its psychological content and significance for the adolescent. It is unlikely that anyone will argue that students in the 6th and 8th grades are very similar to each other in their psychological appearance. At the same time, both of them are teenagers. Therefore, within adolescence, it is customary to distinguish the younger adolescent (10-13 years old), or grades 5-6, and the senior
  14. Shikun A.F., Shikun A.A., Skotnikov M.V. Professional and psychological preparedness for activity as a psychological problem, 2007
    Based on the study of general psychological and military-theoretical sources, a psychological analysis of theoretical and practical studies of the nature and dynamics of the development of psychological preparedness for professional activity is carried out, the concepts of its categories such as psychological readiness, stability, preparedness and their relationship with the specifics of a particular activity are examined.
  15. Youth as a socio-historical category. Age limits
    The determination of the age limits of youth, as well as the solution of many problems related to the "youth", is still the subject of scientific discussion. In modern psychology, data on patterns specific to youth are incomparably less than information on development in childhood. It is even indicative that, in contrast to child psychology or gerontopsychology, psychology
  16. Chronological, biological, social and psychological ages and possible options for their relationship
    When these levels and their correlation are identified, the chronological age — the number of years a person has lived since the birth of years and months — means little to understand the state of his body, his personality characteristics, his qualities as a subject of activity. It is much more informative to obtain a correct judgment about all of his hypostasis is his biological, social and
  17. Age as a form of development
    If we approach the understanding of age, based on the position of I.S. Kon, the essence of which is as follows: the ratio of genetically defined, socially educated and independently achieved is fundamentally different for different individuals, then age is not and cannot be an internal moment of the development process. Age is not a given, but a given. One age does not develop into another, but is replaced by another. Is not
  18. The main psychological neoplasms of a person aged 13-17 years
    Neoplasms According to a psychological study in 1927. According to a psychological study in 1987. 1. Puberty. The natural roots of a developing person; a ripening appears its new appearance. This is the rebirth of man. A huge number of any ailments originates at this age. The birth of a new psyche is “suddenly” revealed inwardness.
  19. Psychological neoplasms of adolescence
    Cognitive development in adolescence. The younger adolescence is characterized by an increase in cognitive activity (the “peak of curiosity” falls on 11-12 years), the expansion of cognitive interests. In adolescence, the intellectual processes of a teenager are actively being improved. In Western psychology, the development of intelligence in adolescence is considered with
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