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Diseases of the newborn

At the same time, a healthy R (+ h) child can be born to a Rh-sensitized woman after children suffering from GBN.

GBN is manifested in 3 main forms: anemic, icteric and hydropic. Anemia develops at the end of the 1-2 week of life, the content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes decreases, anisocytosis, erythroblastosis polychromosia appears. The liver and spleen are enlarged. In the future, there is a moderate delay in the overall development of the child. The postpartum icteric form occurs when the placental barrier function is good. A child is born outwardly healthy. GBN develops several hours after birth.

Congenital icteric form - a child is born with anemia and jaundice, he has an enlarged liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and sometimes the heart. Children who remain alive are significantly behind in mental development.

Edematous form of HDN - edema doubles the weight of the fetus. A child born alive dies in the coming minutes or hours.

Treatment: in severe form of HDN, emergency treatment consists in replacing, transfusion. After a blood transfusion, detoxification therapy is carried out, an abundant injection of fluid inside, iv plasma transfusion, blood substitutes. For the treatment of HDN, the photochemical method is used: the skin of the child is irradiated with blue light lamps for 12-16 hours a day (phototherapy takes from 2 to 6 days). External integument in the form of aplosia of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, congenital keratosis of angiomas, telangiectasias. Severe deformities are diaphragmatic hernia), underdevelopment of the eyeballs, atrasia of the auditory canals, anesthesia and hypoplasia of the lung, digestive defects: pyloric stenosis, atresia of the bile ducts, congenital hydroneurosis, ectapia of the bladder, and various heart defects are also found.

Diseases of the skin and navel. Diaper rash is the most common skin lesion. They appear in the folds of the skin, in the buttocks with unsatisfactory care for the newborn. Diaper rash is especially easy in children with exudative diathesis. With diaper rash, the skin is hyperemic, then erosion appears, weeping surfaces appear, the child becomes restless.

With hyperemia of the skin, it is lubricated with sterile sunflower oil; lotions with Burava liquid, rm resorcinol and AgNO3 are placed on the wetting surface. It is recommended to do hygienic baths with r-rum KMnO4.

Pyoderma - it includes: visiculopusteles, pemphigus of newborns, exfoliative dermatitis of Gitter, pseudofurunculosis. Pyoderma of the newborn in the future can be the cause of sepsis.

Viziculopustyles - characterized by the appearance on the skin of small white bubbles the size of a millet grain. The contents of the vesicles are first serous, then they become purulent. After a few days, the bubbles burst or undergo reverse development.

Treatment: the bubbles are removed with a swab dipped in 96% alcohol, after which the skin is smeared with an alcohol solution of methylene blue or brilliant green. Bubbles can be cauterized with the indicated solutions without opening. The skin between the vesicles is wiped with 50% alcohol, VHF is indicated, hygienic baths are made with KMnO4 solution.

Pemphigus of the newborn (pemphigus). Bubbles of various sizes appear on the skin, filled with serous-purulent contents. Bubbles burst, exposing an eroded surface that quickly epithelizes. Pemphigus is a contagious disease and often appears in the form of epidemic outbreaks. Pemphigus patients are immediately isolated. When treating pemphigus with a sterile needle or scissors, the bubbles are opened, the contents of the bubble are removed with sterile cotton, and the erosion is lubricated with methylene blue alcohol solution or brilliant green. With an abundant rash, antibiotics are indicated.

Ritter exfoliative dermatitis is a severe form of pemphigus, in which diffuse extensive exfoliation of the upper layer of the skin occurs. For treatment, antibiotics are used, a plasma transfusion in / in a fluid infusion, the introduction of β-globulin, vitamins.

Pseudofurunculosis - on the hairline of the head, back, buttocks, hips appear dense, ranging in size from a pea to a bean, purple-red infiltrates. Gradually softening, they open with the release of thick greenish-yellow pus. Often accompanied by general disorders: breast failure, weight loss, dyspeptic disorders, fever. During treatment, information is opened, antibiotics,? -Globulin are administered, hemo-therapy, UV and UHF are indicated.

Inflammation of the navel - in a newborn due to infection, in violation of asepsis, unsatisfactory technique for processing the umbilical cord. Distinguish: simple, phlegmanth and necrotic form of anpholyte. With a simple form, the umbilical wound gets wet, there is serous or serous-purulent discharge with the formation of crusts, the skin around is hyperemic. The phlegmonous form of ampholyte is diagnosed with the spread of the inflammatory process to adjacent tissues. The skin around the navel is hypertrophied, swollen, infiltrated, serous-purulent and purulent exudate stand out from the umbilical wound, periodically the wound of bleeding, an ulcer may form at its bottom. With ampholyte, along with local manifestations, general symptoms are also observed: lethargy, poor sucking, insufficient weight gain. Treatment: broad-spectrum antibiotics are indicated, wounds are treated with H2O2 followed by instillation of 96% alcohol, railings of plasma, blood,? -Globulin, and hygienic baths are also used.

Sepsis of the newborn is an infectious disease resulting from the spread of infection by the hematogenous or lymphatic route from the infectious and inflammatory focus. The umbilical wound, umbilical vessels, damaged skin, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and conjunctiva of the eye most often serve as the entry gate for infection. In the diagnosis of sepsis, symptoms indicating a previous infection of the child are of great importance; late fall of the umbilical cord, prolonged weeping of the navel, abscesses on the skin, regurgitation, poor weight gain. At the height of the disease, symptoms of toxicosis increase for 2-3 weeks of the disease: children become lethargic, hypotension, hyporeflexia develops, the skin acquires a grayish-pale color, heart sounds are muffled for 2-3 weeks of the disease, the liver and spleen are enlarged.

Against the background of sepsis, complications develop in the form of purulent meningitis, osteomyelitis, abscesses, phlegmon, parapractide, peretonitis, abscessed pneumonia, pyelonephritis, abscess of the parotid gland, liver, kidneys, which often leads to death. Treatment: complex, earlier, long. Of antibacterial agents, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used. The administration of? -Globulin has a positive effect; the administration of cordiamine, cardiac glucosides, vitamins, Vikasol, rutin, CaCl2, antihist drugs is indicated.
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Diseases of the newborn

  1. Diseases of the Newborn Asphyxia of the Newborn
    Asphyxia of newborns can develop both during normal childbirth with pelvic presentation of the fetus, and in the pathology of the birth process. In pigs, asphyxiation of the fetuses located in the tops of the uterine horns can occur with head presentation. A similar situation is often observed in carnivores, especially with weak contractions and attempts, when the fetus moves too slowly along the uterine horn. Asphyxia
  2. The terminological dictionary for the topic: “Diseases of the newborn. Skin diseases. Belly button. Sepsis".
    Aseptics - a set of measures aimed at preventing the entry of m / o into the human body. Bacteremia - the presence of bacteria in the circulating blood. A vesicle is an element of a rash in the form of a vesicle filled with serous exudate. Hyperemia - local plethora. Hyperthermia - overheating of the body. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Omphalitis is an inflammation of the umbilical wound. Pyoderma - pustiform
  3. Methodical manual for students. Nursing process in diseases of newborns (skin diseases, navel, sepsis), 2007

  4. Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis) is due to an immunological conflict between the mother and the fetus due to incompatibility with red blood cell antigens. Hemolytic disease occurs in approximately 0.5% of newborns. Hemolytic disease develops if the fetus inherits from the father erythrocyte antigens that are absent in the mother's body. Most often
  5. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
    SYNONYMS Erythroblastosis of the fetus and newborn. DEFINITION OF GBN - isoimmune hemolytic anemia that occurs in cases of incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus by erythrocyte Ar, while Ar is localized on the erythrocytes of the fetus, and antibodies to them are produced in the mother's body. CODE ICD-R55 Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. P55.0 Rhesus isoimmunization of fetus and newborn P55.1
  6. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis) is caused by an immunological conflict between the mother and the fetus due to incompatibility with erythrocyte antigens, which is associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and jaundice. Hemolytic disease occurs in approximately 0.5% of newborns. Although there are more than 60 systems of red blood cell antigens, but most often hemolytic disease
  7. Diseases of the skin of newborns
    The neonatal period is the most critical age stage of life in which adaptation processes are hardly outlined. The duration of the neonatal period has individual fluctuations, but on average is 28 days. The condition of the child immediately after birth is determined by its genetic code, the conditions in which the pregnancy and childbirth took place, and the sanitary-hygienic regime of the environment
  8. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
    Synonyms Vitamin K-dependent hemorrhagic syndrome. DEFINITION Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn - an acquired or congenital disease of the neonatal period, manifested by increased bleeding due to insufficiency of coagulation factors, the activity of which depends on vitamin K. Table 29-1. Classification of hemorrhagic syndrome in newborns
    REASONS AND DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a disease caused by an immunological conflict due to the incompatibility of the blood of the fetus and mother with erythrocyte antigens. Hemolytic disease of the newborn is diagnosed in approximately 0.6% of all newborns. GBN usually causes incompatibility of the fetus and mother for Rh or AB0 antigens. Incompatibility
  10. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (GBN) is one of the urgent problems of modern obstetrics and neonatology. Currently, fetal death and death of newborns due to hemolytic disease, their disability as a result of irreversible central nervous system processes are often noted. According to the WHO, the incidence of HDN is at least 5 per 1000 births, with more than 60-70% of newborns needing
    Unlike physiological jaundice of newborns (icterus neonatorum simplex), which is characteristic of the vast majority (80–90%) of newborns and gives a good prognosis, the described pathological form, also known as “icterus neonatorum guavis”, is characterized by exclusively severe course and, as a rule, ends with the death of the child. Etiology and pathogenesis. Origin
  12. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease develops as a result of isoimmunization caused by incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus. In 80–85% of cases, the cause of the disease is iso-immunization according to the Rhesus factor, in 20–15% - according to the ABO system. Allocate anemic, icteric and edematous forms of the disease. From the first hours of life, the anemic form is manifested by pallor of the skin, hypodynamia, enlarged liver and
  13. Diseases of the skin of newborns.
    Predisposing factors: AFD of the skin and immune system, prematurity, diseases of the newborn (asphyxia, birth injury, HCB). Reasons: defects in care and skin infection m / o. Diseases of the skin of a non-infectious nature Diseases of the skin of an infectious nature 1) Sclerema, scleroderma - diffuse tightening of the skin, subcutaneous tissue in the thighs, buttocks, abdomen, trunk, hypothermia, adynamia in
    The perinatal period of development is called the period from the 22nd full week of fetal life to 7 full days after the birth of the baby. The gestational age of the fetus is determined by the gestational age. Pregnancy duration is measured from the first day of the last normal menstruation. The average duration of pregnancy is 280 days (40 weeks). Full-term is a child born
  15. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
    Changes in the fetal organism with hemolytic disease Hyperbilirubinemia does not significantly affect the condition of the fetus, since the mother’s liver assumes the function of neutralizing the resulting bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is dangerous for the newborn. According to the autopsy of fetuses who died from hemolytic disease, a characteristic dropsy with bloating and severe
  17. Rhesus conflict, HDN - hemolytic disease of the newborn and bilirubin encephalopathy
    Often in the history of children suffering from cerebral palsy, there is GBN (hemolytic disease of the newborn), which occurs as a result of an immune conflict between the mother and fetus, due to the incompatibility of their blood with various red blood cell antigens. As early as 1932, LK Diamond et al. reported that dropsy of the fetus, severe jaundice and anicteric anemia in
    A woman in labor D., 24 years old, was taken from the Central District Hospital to the maternity hospital on December 22 in connection with the development of labor. Complaints of cramping abdominal pain. From the anamnesis. Menarche from 13 years old, established immediately, regular, 6 days, after 28 days. The last menstruation is March 23-27. Pregnancy is the third. The two previous ones ended in medical abortion in the period of 8 weeks. Observed on FAP from a 20-week
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the topic materials is necessary for successful assimilation of them in the departments of the clinical cycle. In the practical work of a pediatrician, it is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations. The general purpose of the lesson. On the basis of knowledge of the morphological manifestations of diseases and syndromes of pathology of the perinatal period, learn to recognize and conduct them
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