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Chemical burns


Scope of examination
1. Chemical burns cause corrosive liquids - concentrated acids and caustic alkalis.
2. Acids have a cauterizing and necrotic effect, coagulation of tissue proteins; alkalis dissolve proteins and cause kallikvatsionny necrosis.
3. Signs of a chemical burn if liquid gets inside are: burns on the face, lips, oropharynx, hoarseness, pain, shortness of breath.
Health care
1. Remove clothing from the affected surface, remove solid (powder) chemicals from the skin.
2. Rinse the burned surface (except for burns with lime) with plenty of running water.
3. In case of eye burns, it is necessary to maintain the eyelids during washing, tilt the head to one side for free draining of the liquid.
4. Determine the presence or absence of signs of NDC.
5. Analgesia: tramadol 1-2 mg / kg or renalgan 0.5-5.0 or 50% analgin 0.3-0.5 mg / kg with diazepam or seduxen 0.2-0.3 mg / kg intramuscularly; with extensive damage or severe pain - promedol 0.01 mg / kg or 1% solution of 0.1 ml / year of life, but not more than 1 ml intramuscularly or intravenously.

6. In case of liquid ingestion and respiratory failure - after preliminary sedation of 0.1% atropine sulfate 0.1 ml / year of life (not more than 0.5 ml) intravenously, ketamine at a dose of 5 mg / kg intravenously - tracheal intubation and transfer to Mechanical ventilation with the supply of 100% oxygen.
7. With the phenomena of laryngo-bronchial spasm - inhalation of salbutamol (ventolin) 2-3 mg through an inhaler for 5-10 minutes. or berodual 1-2 ml (20-40 drops), or intravenously 2.4% solution of aminophylline 2l4 mg / kg, then 0.75 ml / kg / hour.
8. In cases of shock - infusion of UCS in a volume of 20-30 ml / kg / hour or HES preparations (Reftan, Reftan plus, Stabizol) - 8 ml / kg / hour; prednisone 2-3 mg / kg or hydrocortisone 5-10 mg / kg intravenously or intramuscularly.
9. The introduction of a thick gastric tube lubricated with petroleum jelly, washing the stomach to clean wash water (see Appendix).
10. Urgent hospitalization in ICU.
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Chemical burns

  1. CHEMICAL BURNS
    Chemical burns can be caused by organic and non-organic substances in the solid, liquid and gaseous state. The degree of damage depends on the amount of substance, its concentration and time of contact with the skin. The pathogenesis of chemical burns differs from the pathogenesis of thermal lesions. When concentrated acids act on the skin, tissue proteins coagulate (with the formation of
  2. Chemical burns of the esophagus
    Esophageal burns are usually of a chemical nature, with the exception of the rarest cases of thermal burns. Chemical burns of the esophagus occur with the accidental or deliberate (with suicidal purpose) intake of aggressive fluids inside. Currently, the most common cause of such burns is acetic essence (80% solution of acetic acid). The pathogenesis of a chemical burn of the esophagus is quite typical.
  3. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL BURNS
    Animals with thermal or chemical burns are killed for meat when they are in an incurable condition or their treatment and maintenance are not economically feasible in the future. Thermal burns in animals are the result of exposure to tissue of high temperature (fire, hot water, hot air), radiation energy, and electric current. As a result of thermal burns in animals,
  4. Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal tract
    Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, the vestibular part of the larynx is affected (epiglottis, scoop-epiglottis and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn occurs
  5. Thermal and chemical burns
    ICD-10 code T20 - T32 Diagnosis Diagnosis Mandatory Consciousness level, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination, burn surface area Consultation of a combiologist (traumatologist, surgeon) Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation indicators (APTT, PTV,
  6. Thermal and chemical burns of the respiratory tract
    ICD-10 code T27 Diagnostics Diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, effectiveness and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, medical history, physical examination R-graph of chest organs Bronchoscopy Laboratory tests: bacterial culture 2-3 days after a burn, hemoglobin, gases blood, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation
  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A CELL AND ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
    The elemental composition of the cell (protoplasm). To clearly imagine the biological and physicochemical properties of tissues, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of the protoplasm of the cell. In addition to water, there are a large number of elements in the protoplasm. The finest chemical studies have found that out of 104 elements of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, protoplasm contains 96. Four
  8. The chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. Self-cleaning ability of water sources
    The chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains more or less mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of water is determined by the nature of the soil or soils adjacent to aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in the water is expressed in mg / L. Organic matter Of these, the most important
  9. Burns
    A burn is an injury that occurs when a body is exposed to high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current, and ionizing radiation. Burned is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime injuries. In the structure of burn injury, household burns prevail. A third of the number of burned are children.
  10. Burns
    Burns (burnio) - damage to body tissues resulting from local effects of high temperature, chemicals, electric current or ionizing radiation. On the etiological basis, thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns are I-IV degrees. A degree I burn, or superficial burn, is characterized by the appearance of pain
  11. Burns
    A burn is tissue damage due to careless handling of fire, chemicals, and electricity. Pathophysiology • Burn damage - open damage or destruction of the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes by thermal, chemical, electrical factors, radiation energy, or a combination thereof. For burns, not only the type of lesion factor matters, but also the duration (exposure) of it
  12. Burns
    Clinical characteristics of burns in children Burns are injuries to the skin and other tissues that occur under the influence of a thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation agent. Depending on the depth of the lesion, the following degrees of tissue damage in children are distinguished: 1) burns of I degree - damage to the upper layers of the epidermis, redness and swelling of the skin, pain in the area of ​​damage; 2) burns II
  13. Burns
    Damage to tissues from exposure to high temperature (thermal burns) or chemicals (chemical burns) or both factors (thermochemical burns). The depth of the lesion distinguishes surface burns (I, II, GPA art.) And deep (111B, IV art.). If the lesion exceeds 10-20% of the body surface with a superficial burn or 5-10% - with a deep burn, a "burn disease" develops,
  14. Eye burns
    CLASSIFICATION By etiology, eye burns are divided into: ¦ chemical; ¦ thermal; ¦ radiant energy (during powerful flashes, explosions, voltaic arc, exposure to intense visible light with a significant proportion of ultraviolet radiation). The severity distinguishes: ¦ Light severity (I degree). ¦ Moderate severity (II degree). ¦ Severe burns (grade III). CLINICAL PICTURE Clinical picture
  15. BURNS
    A burn is tissue damage caused by high temperatures (thermal burns) or caustic chemicals (chemical burns). The main cause of burn injuries in cats is the carelessness of the owners. Symptoms Depending on the severity of the lesion, redness, swelling and soreness of the skin, the appearance of blisters with their subsequent breakthrough, carbonization and tissue necrosis are observed.
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