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Burns

After this, the wound should be doused with an aqueous solution of benzalkonium (ciferan), a quaternary ammonium compound, which helps to remove the remaining fluoride and reduces itching and burning in the wound. Then, while the victim is being transported to the hospital, a water-soluble ointment containing magnesium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate is applied to the wound. Medical assistance consists in determining the area of ​​the lesion and treating the burn. For burns that make up less than 20% of the total surface of the body, 5 ml / cm2 of 10% calcium gluconate solution is injected into the wound and surrounding areas. Sometimes in hospitals dressings are applied with a solution consisting of equal parts of calcium gluconate and dimethyl sulfoxide. When providing first aid, you should be careful not to get injured yourself. Therefore, it is advisable to use protective clothing and gloves. The area of ​​the lesion during chemical burns, as in the case of thermal injuries, is measured by nomograms of the entire surface of the skin. However, at the initial stage of treatment, these measurements should be carried out several times at short intervals. The affected area may increase if some of its areas were not washed in time with water. Thus, the lesion area cannot be established at the initial stage. Therefore, any chemical burn in children is the basis for hospitalization. In children, the most severe are chemical burns of the esophagus and stomach. As a rule, alkalis affect the esophagus and acids affect the stomach, but there are exceptions (IA Haller et al., 1972; LP Goldman et al., 1984). Stages of treatment for alkali burns (J. T. Zwiren, 1987): Avoid the use of emetics, so as not to damage the esophagus. Water intake is ineffective, since 10-15 seconds are enough to develop damage. In this regard, it is impractical to use weak acids. It is necessary to determine the degree of damage to the respiratory tract: a) swelling of the larynx and epiglottis - a tracheotomy is performed; b) violation of swallowing - carry out a gastrostomy. At the same time, it is necessary to carry out infusion therapy with the introduction of antibiotics and steroids. Stages of treatment for burns with acids: I. Contraindicated: The use of emetics, as this can prolong the period of contact due to belching of the acid and intensify the burn. Treatment with dilution and neutralization of acid, which can lead to a significant increase in body temperature and the further spread of the lesion. P. Shown: Nasogastric aspiration and acid removal through a probe. Intubation or tracheotomy for the correction of respiratory disorders. An auxiliary measure is prolonged parenteral nutrition. Electric shock burn. The severity of this burn depends on the area and depth of skin damage. The degree of burn and the area of ​​the damaged surface of the skin are easily established, and the degree of necrosis of the structures lying deeper is practically impossible to accurately account for and can be compared with crushing of tissues (G. Arturson, A. Hedlund, 1984). The development of hemoglobinemia and myoglobinemia, as well as the formation of cylinders that can completely block the renal tubules, often leads to severe oliguria and renal dysfunction, which further complicates the assessment of the severity of damage. Extensive burns are usually fatal. Stages of help with electric burns. Stop exposure to electric current. Immediately determine the presence and effectiveness of respiration and blood circulation. If these functions are ineffective, the ABC rule is applied. Air way open— restore airway patency; Breathe for victim - start mechanical ventilation; Circulation his blood - start a heart massage. Conduct infusion therapy aimed at preventing renal failure. Burn shock. With a burn of more than 5% of the body surface, shock develops due to impaired microcirculation and water-electrolyte balance. In the development of burn shock, the main pathogenetic factor affecting clinical symptoms is plasmorrhea, leading to a deficiency of protein and potassium in the blood. The victims develop toxemia, hemoconcentration and impaired renal function, according to the severity of which they evaluate burn shock. Emergency care begins with infusion therapy. Polyglucin, reopoliglukin, isotonic sodium chloride solution are injected intravenously. The volume of injected solutions should be such that 1,5 ml of saline and colloidal solutions fall on 1 m2 of body surface per day. In this case, the number of saline solutions must be determined by the formula: 1 ml X burn surface area in%. The number of colloidal solutions (blood, plasma) should be determined by the formula: 1.5 ml of the solution is the burn surface area in% - body weight in kg. During the first 8 hours of infusion therapy, '/ g of the solution volume is administered, the other half is administered for the remaining time of the day. In the process of infusion therapy, clinical and biochemical blood parameters (glucose, protein, electrolytes, coagulability), hemodynamics (heart rate, blood pressure), liver and kidney function, diuresis are monitored. Glucocorticoids are prescribed in a daily dose of 5 mg / kg for prednisone. To anesthetize and reduce mental stress, droperidol is administered at a dose of 0.5-0.8 mg / kg once a day (in an ampoule - 10 ml of a 0.25% solution; 1 ml contains 2.5 mg). Droperidol is an antipsychotic with a quick, but short-lived effect. It has an antishock, antiemetic, antiarrhythmic effect, and reduces blood pressure. A peculiar calming effect is characteristic of it, accompanied by a decrease in reactions to external stimuli. Droperidol reduces psychomotor agitation, suppresses a sense of fear, relieves delirium, hallucinations, automatism. Prescribe tranquilizers (lat. Tranquillo - calm). Sibazon (seduxen, relanium) stimulates the brain structures involved in the formation of y-aminobutyric acid. Sibazon is produced in tablets of 0.001, 0.002 and 0.005 g. Seduxen is released in tablets of 0.005 g and in ampoules of 2 ml of a 0.5% solution. Relanium is released in tablets of 0.002; 0.005 and 0.01 g and in ampoules of 2 ml of 0.5% solution. In emergency cases, seduxen or relanium is administered intravenously or intramuscularly at a dose of 0.3-0.5 mg / kg. Due to the possibility of absorption of seduxen by plastic materials, it cannot be injected with plastic disposable syringes and droppers with plastic tubes. Due to the fact that tranquilizers enhance the effects of drugs that inhibit the function of the central nervous system, with the combined use of such drugs, their doses should be reduced. As an anesthetic, you can use promedol in a dose of 0.1 ml of 1% solution for a year of life, but not more than 1 ml. In case of burns, electric trauma and hypothermia, shock can also develop (pathogenetic features of various types of shock are described in the section “Shocks in children”). The most severe consequence of electric current is ventricular fibrillation. The pathogenesis of shock during electric trauma is based on damage to the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system, which leads to an increase in the permeability of capillaries with the release of plasma and red blood cells into the perivascular space, mainly in the internal organs. Electric shock shock is a combination of pain and cardiogenic effects, characterized by loss of consciousness and hemodynamic disturbances due to arrhythmia or asystole.
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Burns

  1. Burns
    A burn is an injury that occurs when a body is exposed to high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current, and ionizing radiation. Burned is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime injuries. In the structure of burn injury, household burns prevail. A third of the number of burned are children.
  2. Burns
    Clinical characteristics of burns in children Burns are injuries to the skin and other tissues that occur under the influence of a thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation agent. Depending on the depth of the lesion, the following degrees of tissue damage in children are distinguished: 1) burns of I degree - damage to the upper layers of the epidermis, redness and swelling of the skin, pain in the area of ​​damage; 2) burns II
  3. Burns
    Damage to tissues from exposure to high temperature (thermal burns) or chemicals (chemical burns) or both factors (thermochemical burns). The depth of the lesion distinguishes surface burns (I, II, GPA art.) And deep (111B, IV art.). If the lesion exceeds 10-20% of the body surface with a superficial burn or 5-10% - with a deep burn, a "burn disease" develops, in
  4. BURNS
    A burn is tissue damage caused by high temperatures (thermal burns) or caustic chemicals (chemical burns). The main cause of burn injuries in cats is the carelessness of the owners. Symptoms Depending on the severity of the lesion, redness, swelling and soreness of the skin, the appearance of blisters with their subsequent breakthrough, carbonization and tissue necrosis are observed.
  5. Burns
    Thermal lesions are a fairly common occurrence in childhood, often they lead to disability and death. Burns make up 1/5 of all household injuries requiring treatment in a hospital setting. Most often, burns in children occur due to exposure to high temperature fluids (hot water, milk, soup), flame burns are less common, and even less often chemical
  6. Eye burns
    CLASSIFICATION By etiology, eye burns are divided into: ¦ chemical; ¦ thermal; ¦ radiant energy (during powerful flashes, explosions, voltaic arc, exposure to intense visible light with a significant proportion of ultraviolet radiation). The severity distinguishes: ¦ Light severity (I degree). ¦ Moderate severity (II degree). ¦ Severe burns (grade III). CLINICAL PICTURE Clinical picture
  7. Burns of the pharynx and larynx
    There are thermal and chemical burns. Thermal burns occur when exposed to hot liquids, vapors, gases. Chemical burns are more common. They are observed when swallowing acids and alkalis by mistake or with the aim of suicide. The most common burns are vinegar essence, ammonia and caustic soda. The degree of burn (from catarrh to necrosis) depends on
  8. Burns
    A burn is tissue damage due to careless handling of fire, chemicals, and electricity. Pathophysiology • Burn damage - open damage or destruction of the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes by thermal, chemical, electrical factors, radiation energy, or a combination thereof. For burns, not only the type of lesion factor matters, but also the duration (exposure) of it
  9. Burns
    Burns occur as a result of damage to the integumentary tissues by high temperature, electric shock, aggressive chemicals and ionizing radiation. D - ka: In the diagnosis of burns, 4 degrees are distinguished: 1 degree - redness and swelling of the skin; 2 degree - detachment of the epidermis with the formation of blisters. The bottom of the blisters is bright pink, very painful. 3 degree "a" -
  10. Larynx burns
    Larynx burns are of two types - chemical and thermal. As a rule, they are combined with damage to the oral cavity, pharynx, and when swallowing a poisonous or hot substance, the esophagus (see "Burns of the pharynx and esophagus"). Chemical burns occur as a result of ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often affected
  11. Burns
    Burns occur as a result of damage to integumentary tissues by high temperature, electric shock, harsh chemicals and ionizing radiation. DIAGNOSTICS There are 4 degrees of burns: - I degree - redness and swelling of the skin. - II degree - detachment of the epidermis with the formation of blisters. The bottom of the blisters is bright pink, very painful. - ІІІА degree - skin damage to
  12. Thermal burns
    Thermal burns are a type of injury that occurs as a result of exposure to body tissues of high temperature (flame, steam, boiling water, hot metals, gases, electromagnetic radiation of the optical range). Clinical diagnosis The severity of the condition of the affected child is determined by the depth and prevalence of tissue damage and manifestations of burn shock. Distinguish
  13. Burns
    Burn - damage to the skin and underlying tissues arising from local thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation exposure. Thermal burns Thermal burns arise from direct exposure to high temperatures (flame, boiling water, burning liquids, etc.). The severity of the damage depends on the height of the temperature, the duration of exposure, the extent of the lesion and location
  14. Eye burns
    From the point of view of the etiopathogenetic effect on the organ of vision and therapeutic tactics, burns are divided into chemical (caused by acids or alkalis), thermal and combining both damage factors. Chemical burns happen not only in production. At home, everyone has a lot of household tools, the contact of which with the eyes poses a great danger to vision. The nature of the burn depends on
  15. Burns
    Often there are cases when our older children begin to become interested in matches, gas burners, or simply carelessly handle brisk liquids. And this is not surprising, because a child aged about 3 years old becomes too curious, restless, wants to know everything, he is interested in where it comes from, how it works, but at the same time he still does not know what
  16. Non-thermal burns
    CHEMICAL DAMAGE The initial treatment of chemical burns of all types consists of copious flushing with clean water. It must be remembered that if the patient lies in a contaminated wash water solution, then chemical damage may continue. It is preferable to remove contaminated clothing from the patient and wash it in the shower. After this, chemical burns should be treated in the same way as
  17. BURNS. BURN DISEASE
    Definition Burns are tissue damage caused by thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation energy. According to the etiological factor, burns are usually called thermal, chemical and radiation. EPIDEMIOLOGY High power ratio of modern production, everyday life, transport, widespread use of high voltage current, aggressive chemical products and
  18. External ear burns
    Thermal burns occur when exposed to flame tissue, hot metal, hot liquid, steam, sunlight and modern weapons. The classification of burns adopted at XXYII nuacaa oe? O? Aia, i? Aaoniao? Eaaao 4 noaiaie ii aeoaeia ii? A? Aiey: I degree - erythema and edema; II degree - blistering; IIIa degree - skin necrosis with partial damage to the germ layer;
  19. Burns of the pharynx and esophagus
    Burns distinguish between thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation. Thermal burns of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus (often at the same time) usually occur when swallowing hot food, often liquid, sometimes when hot air, gas or steam gets into these cavities. In rare cases, only one organ is affected, which is associated with the duration of contact of the damaging agent with the mucosa
  20. Thermal burns
    Thermal burns - traumatic damage to the surface and deep tissues of the body under the influence of high temperature, accompanied by a general reaction with disruption of the activity of various organs and systems. Among the causes of death in childhood (up to 4 years), burns occupy the 2nd most frequent place (after road traffic injuries). Pathophysiology. Exposure to heat
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