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EVALUATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD

Methods by which physical development is studied include

• anthropometry;

• examination and description of the signs of physique and appearance (somatoscopy);

• function research: dynamometry with the help of special dynamometer devices;

• study of physical performance using a step test or bicycle ergometry;

• physical indicators (lung capacity, ECG, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.)

Physical development is monitored on a monthly basis in the first year of life, on a quarterly basis in the second year of life, once every 6 months in the 3rd year of life, and once a year in children older than 3 years of age.

Clinical anthropometry includes the ability to take measurements of the body (the methodology of anthropometric measurements is described in Appendix No. 5) and comprehend their results.
All anthropometric indicators are conventionally divided into 2 groups: main and additional. Anthropometric research necessarily includes the measurement of key indicators (body length, body weight, chest circumference and head). In-depth medical examinations in schools usually measure length and body weight. Sometimes for a more accurate assessment of nutrition and biological maturity use the measurement and additional indicators (circumference of the shoulder, hips, legs, leg length, head height).

To assess the physical development of the child in comparison with standard indicators, it is customary to use centile tables. In the absence of tables, anthropometric data can be estimated using the empirical method and the method of physical development indices.
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EVALUATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD

  1. Anthropometric indicators of child development
    To assess the physical development of the child, weight, height, circumference of the chest and head are important. Weight gain and growth in infancy. The body weight of a healthy full-term newborn baby is on average 3400-3500 gm for boys and 3200-3400 for girls. But there can be fluctuations in the direction of both a decrease and an increase in mass. With multiple pregnancy, body weight
  2. The scheme for assessing the physical development of the child
    The physical development of the child is assessed by comparing the indicators of weight, body length, head and chest circumferences with age standards for sigmal deviations, centile tables, nomograms (appendices 1, 2 a-d, 3 a-d, 4, 7). In recent years, as a rule, the centile method has been used to assess the physical development of children. The essence of the centile method is to distribute
  3. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD
    Control over physical development is of great importance in childhood, especially in the first year of life and in the puberty. To assess physical development, it is necessary to measure body weight and height, circumferences of the head, chest, body proportions of the child, the calculation of some indices. In older children, an objective assessment of physical development requires an assessment of the degree of sexual development.
  4. THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF APPROACHES TO THE EVALUATION OF INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
    (Kuchma V.R., Skoblina N.A.) An analysis of the informativeness of methods for assessing indicators of the physical development of children and adolescents at the population and individual levels allows us to give preference to methods that use regional regression scales. Estimation by regional modified scales of regression of body weight by body length and a comprehensive scheme have much in common: - indicators of physical
  5. Informational content of methods for assessing indicators of the physical development of children and adolescents at the population level
    In the last decade of the XX and at the beginning of the XXI century, a number of works were published on the physical development of children and adolescents and its relationship with environmental factors and living conditions (Bogomolova E.S., 1994, Mikhailova S.A., 1995, Sukhanova N. N., 1996, Svinarev M.Yu., 2002, Ivannikov A.I., Sitnikova V.P. et al., 2007, Belyakova N.A., 2006 and others). Using different assessment techniques
  6. Informative methods of assessing indicators of physical development of children and adolescents at the individual level
    (Kuchma V.R., Skoblina N.A., Pinelis V.G., Karganov M.Yu.) Literature data indicate the relationship of physical development and the health status of children and adolescents: moreover, different authors question "what is primary?" It is decided differently. V.N. Kardashenko, E.P. Stromskaya et al. (1982, 1985) note that the relationship between the characteristics of physical development and the state of health remains insufficient
  7. EVALUATION OF INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING PREVENTIVE MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
    (Baranov A.A., Kuchma V.R., Sukhareva L.M., Rapoport I.K., Yampolskaya Yu.A.) Monitoring the health of children and adolescents - monitoring is based on the results of mass preventive examinations of children and adolescents in preschool and educational institutions of general and correctional type, boarding schools, in educational institutions of vocational education. Massive
  8. INFORMATIVITY OF METHODS OF EVALUATING INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT WHEN CONDUCTING SOCIO-HYGIENIC MONITORING OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENT POPULATION
    INFORMATIVITY OF METHODS OF EVALUATING INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT WHEN MANAGING SOCIO-HYGIENIC MONITORING OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENT
  9. PHYSICAL AND NERVO-MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
    PHYSICAL AND NERVO-MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN CHILDREN AND
  10. Physical development of the population, signs of study, assessment of physical development
    Physical state - the degree of a person’s readiness to perform muscular and labor loads of a different nature in a given specific time period. Physical development is a complex of physical, morphological and functional properties of an organism, which determine mass density, body shape, structural and mechanical qualities and are expressed by its physical strength reserve. Factors Affecting
  11. Physical development. Methods for determining and assessing the physical development of children
    Physical development is understood as a combination of morphological and functional signs of the body: height, weight, chest circumference, lung capacity, muscle strength of the hands, etc. Physical development is directly related to the state of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, musculoskeletal, and other systems . In turn, stability depends on the level of physical development.
  12. Research and assessment of the physical development of students and schoolchildren
    Objective: to master the techniques of anthropometric measurements and determine the level of physical development; skills to solve situational problems on an individual assessment of the physical development of schoolchildren and students. Content 1. The concept of physical development and factors influencing it. The main age-gender patterns of the physical development of children and adolescents. 2. The concept of
  13. Indicators of the child’s mental development and methods for their study
    The indicators of the child’s mental development include: - the development of the child’s cognitive sphere (perception, attention, memory, imagination, thinking); - the formation of a system of personal relationships (emotions, needs, motives, attitudes, value orientations, orientation, etc.); - mastery of a system of diverse practical and mental actions that provide an opportunity
  14. Using anthropometric research methods to determine the level of human physical health
    To obtain objective data on the physical development of a person, the level of his physical health, anthropometric indicators are used, i.e. indicators of measurements of the human body. A variety of anthropo- and physiometric indicators make it possible to calculate indices indicating the development of certain morphofunctional qualities of the body, which play an important role in its adaptation to
  15. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
    An important tool for assessing the nutritional status of infants and young children is regular monitoring of their physical development, which is why it should be an integral part of the children's health system. INTRODUCTION In the first 6 months of life, infants grow faster than at any other time after their birth, gaining about 200 g of weight and almost 1 centimeter per week. During
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