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Non-tumor polyps



The vast majority of such formations that occur, in particular, in the colon, are sporadic, and the frequency of their development increases as a person ages. Non-tumor polyps (mostly hyperplastic) make up about 90% of all colon epithelial polyps and are found in more than 50% of people 60 years of age or older. Inflammatory (pseudo-) polyps, which are exophytic outgrowths of the inflamed and regenerating mucous membrane and surrounded by erosion, are noted in patients with prolonged inflammatory bowel diseases (for example, ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease). Lymphoid polyps are one of the varieties of such inflammatory formations in which there is a pronounced lymphoid infiltration of the mucous membrane. We describe the three most important forms of non-tumor polyps of the intestine.

Hyperplastic polyps. The diameter of these small epithelial formations, as a rule, does not exceed 5 mm. They can be found at any age, but more often in 60-70 years. These polyps look like mastoid, spherical, soft and moist protrusions of the mucous membrane, usually located on the tops of the folds. They are single, but multiple forms prevail. In more than 50% of patients, the rectosigmoid zone is affected. Under the microscope it can be seen that such polyps consist of well-formed glands and crypts lined with ordinary epithelium, differentiated in the direction of either enterocytes of the suction type or goblet cells. The basis of these formations is a well-developed own plate of the mucous membrane. Delayed desquamation of normal epithelial cells leads to the formation of additional folds from such accumulating cells and a serrated lining profile. Some of the largest hyperplastic polyps sometimes contain foci of adenomatous changes; these formations do not have a tendency to malignancy.

Juvenile (youthful) polyps. They are focal hamartomic defects of the intestinal mucosa (for hamartomas, see Chapter 7). They are found both as sporadic formations, and as lesions associated with autosomal dominant juvenile polyposis syndrome.
In the vast majority of cases, these polyps develop in children under 5 years old. About 80% of such lesions, almost always single, are localized in the rectum, but occasionally multiple polyps can be scattered throughout the colon. Juvenile polyps are large (diameter 1-3 cm), rounded in shape, soft texture. They can be lobed and have a leg up to 2 cm long. Under the microscope, as the basis of the polyp, an outgrowth of the own plate of the mucous membrane, containing many cystically expanded glands, is detected. Signs of inflammation are visible, so the surface of the polyp may be ulcerated, and its stromal core may be swollen. Single juvenile polyps are not characterized by malignancy, but patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome are at risk of developing adenocarcinoma. Sometimes similar single formations are detected in the colon of adults; they are called retention polyps.

Peitz – Jigers polyps (Peitz – Jägers, JLAPeutz, HJJeghers). This is also a hamartoma formation, often multiple, found in the syndrome of the same name. Such polyps are a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, which is characterized not only by the presence of multiple hamartomic polyps (polyposis) of the gastrointestinal tract, but also by “coffee with milk” stains on the skin of the face, limbs, lips, conjunctiva and oral mucosa, as well as secondary anemia and weight loss. As a rule, polyps are large, have a leg, a dense texture and lobular structure. Under the microscope, a branching network of stromal rods containing smooth muscle fibers, plentiful and developed glands is noteworthy. These rods are covered with ordinary intestinal epithelium rich in goblet cells. The frequency of organ lesions is as follows: stomach - 25%, colon - 30%, small intestine - 100%. Despite the fact that hamartomic polyps themselves are not malignant, patients with Peitz-Dzhegers syndrome have an increased risk of developing cancer of the pancreas, mammary glands, lungs, ovaries and uterus. If cancer occurs in the digestive tube, the accompanying adenomatous lesions usually become the source of its growth.

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Non-tumor polyps

  1. Polyps
    Polyps of the cervix uteri are growths on the cervix (often in the walls of the cervical canal) in the form of a leg with a connective tissue skeleton (rod) covered with a multilayer flat or cylindrical epithelium with glandular structures in the thickness. There are simple (formed glandular or glandular-fibrous formations without proliferative changes) and adenomatous (formations with
  2. Polyps of the nose
    Polyps of the nose is one of the complications of year-round allergic rhinitis. Usually they are localized on the middle nasal concha, around the openings of the maxillary sinuses and the ethmoid labyrinth. Polyps are observed in both allergic and infectious rhinitis. Polyps that occur with allergic rhinitis look like whitish or gray, shiny, gelatinous formations. Polyps in chronic
  3. Cervical Canal Polyps
    Seldom give significant bleeding, more often it is minor bleeding. Decidual polyp - the growth of decidual tissue, and its excess descends into the cervical canal. Such a polyp most often disappears by itself, or it can be removed by carefully unscrewing. A bleeding polyp should be removed, but without curettage of the uterine cavity, with hemostatic therapy, and preserving pregnancy
  4. Endometrial polyps
    Definition of a concept. Endometrial polyps are the growths of individual sections of the mucous membrane of the uterine body (together with the underlying stroma). The term "polyp" has existed in medicine for a long time. For the first time to describe such growths, this term was used in the middle of the XVIII century. However, already in the writings of Hippocrates, one can find mention of polyps as a cause of infertility. Frequency. Literature Data
  5. Endometrial polyps
    Another cause of reproductive system dysfunctions can be endometrial polyps that prevent embryo implantation and are a common cause of menstrual cycle changes. An endometrial polyp occurs as a result of focal growth of the uterine mucosa (endometrium). This formation grows from the wall of the uterus into its cavity and sometimes through the cervical canal reaches
  6. Endometrial polyps
    Endometrial polyps develop due to proliferation of the glands of the basal layer of the endometrium on the leg, consisting of fibrous and smooth muscle tissue. Endometrial polyps are focal endometrial hyperplasia. Due to the fact that in their structure there is stromal tissue (leg), it should not be identified with the polypoid form of glandular-cystic endometrial hyperplasia, in connection with which the term
  7. Fibroepithelial polyps.
    Fibroepithelial polyps are rare ureteral mucosal formations that can lead to obstruction. Similar changes can be detected at any level of the urinary tract, but in terms of the frequency of occurrence of fibroepithelial polyps, the ureters are in the first place, followed by the urethra, pelvis, bladder. In men, the predominant localization is
  8. POLYPS
    - benign leg epithelial tumors growing from the mucous membrane. Classification of colon polyposis (according to V L. Rivkin, 1969) Group I. Polyps: a) single; b) group 1. Glandular and glandular-villous (adenomas and adenopapillomas); 2. Hyperplate (miliary). 3. Cystogranulating. 4. Rare non-epithelial polypoid formations. II group.
  9. P. POLYPES AND Tumors of the Large Intestine
    1. Benign polyps, polyposis and tumors. The etiology and pathogenesis, as well as tumors, in general, have not yet been sufficiently studied. Benign tumors (according to WHO, Geneva, 1981) are divided into three groups: 1). epithelial; 2). carpinoid; 3). non-epithelial tumors. Among the epithelial tumors of the colon, which make up the vast majority of all its tumors, distinguish
  10. Polyp of the nose. U-33.
    {foto25} Treatment outcome: Clinical criteria for improving the patient's condition: 1. Normalization of laboratory parameters. 2. Improving the clinical symptoms of the disease (difficulty breathing, discharge from
  11. Polyps, cysts, and other benign changes in the cervix, vagina, and vulva
    This section describes polyps recognized by colposcopic examination, polypous changes, various cysts on the cervix, in the vagina and vulva. On the cervix, retention mucous cysts are most often formed. The mechanism of their formation is described in section 4.1.3. When the ectopia overlaps the squamous epithelium, mucus retention occurs and retention cysts form. Very rarely
  12. Polyp of the middle ear. H-74.4
    {foto100} Treatment outcome: Clinical criteria for improving the patient's condition: 1. Normalization of temperature. 2. Normalization of laboratory parameters. 3. Improving the clinical symptoms of the disease (pain, hearing loss, discharge from
  13. Vocal fold polyp. U38.1
    {foto177} Treatment outcome: Clinical criteria for improving the patient's condition: 1. Normalization of temperature. 2. Normalization of laboratory parameters. 3. Improving the clinical symptoms of the disease (pain, cough, shortness of breath, hoarseness
  14. GOOD INTESTINAL TUMORS
    - tumor-like formations originating from the mucous, or intestinal, or serous layers of the intestine with expansive growth, which remain in the form of the main node, compress, but do not destroy the tissue and do not give metastases. Classification A. Epithelial: group I. Polyps (single, group): a) glandular and glandular-villous; b) hyperplastic; c) cystic granulating; d)
  15. Tumors of the stomach
    As in other organs of the digestive canal, in frequency epithelial tumors of the stomach prevail over mesenchymal and stromal neoplasms. Polyps. The term "polyps" is used in relation to any exophytic node that rises above the surface of the gastric mucosa. A lipoma or leiomyoma arising in the wall of the stomach can go into the lumen of the organ and create a picture
  16. POLYPOSIS OF THE STOMACH
    Classification of polyps (according to P. G. Kharchenko, 1957) I. According to pathological signs: polypous gastritis; single and multiple polyps (benign, malignant, polypous cancers from polyps); multiple polyps of the gastrointestinal tract. II. According to the clinical course: asymptomatic form; gastritis anemic; complicated form (bleeding polyps, polyp prolapse in
  17. The main causes of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy
    Spontaneous miscarriages 2. Bleeding associated with cystic drift 3. Cervical pregnancy 4. Cervical pathology - cervical canal polyps, decidual polyps, cervical cancer - are less common than the first 3
  18. Long-term effects of exposure
    The long-term effects of radiation in their development are very complex. The physiological characteristics of the body, dose, dose rate, type of radiation have a significant effect. There are non-tumor and tumor forms of long-term consequences. Non-tumor forms include hypoplastic conditions, sclerotic processes, and dishormonal conditions. Tumor effects like
  19. Tumors of the small and large intestine
    Epithelial tumors make up the majority of intestinal neoplasms. Moreover, the colon, including the rectum, is one of the most common organ localizations of primary tumors. As an oncological cause of death for both sexes, colorectal cancer takes second place after bronchogenic carcinoma. The vast majority of cases of colon cancer are
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