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DAMAGE AND DAMAGE TO CELLS AND TISSUES. REASONS, MECHANISMS, TYPES OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE. NECROSIS. APOPTOSIS

Necrosis is the most common type of cell death due to exogenous influences. It is manifested by a sharp swelling or destruction of the cell, denaturation and coagulation of cytoplasmic proteins, destruction of cellular organelles.

Apoptosis serves to eliminate (eliminate) unnecessary cell populations during embryogenesis and various physiological processes. The main morphological feature of apoptosis is the condensation and fragmentation of chromatin.

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DAMAGE AND DAMAGE TO CELLS AND TISSUES. REASONS, MECHANISMS, TYPES OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE. NECROSIS. APOPTOSIS

  1. Damage to cells and tissues. Apoptosis Necrosis. Heart attack.
    1. An autopsy performed on the 3rd day after the death of a patient with myocardial infarction revealed macroscopically expressed signs of autolysis in all organs, which made it difficult to confirm the clinical diagnosis. For the differential diagnosis between necrosis and posthumous autolysis, you can use the histological sign 1.caryolysis 2. karyorexis 3. plasmolysis 4. plasmorexis 5.
  2. Types of cell damage.
    There are three main forms of cell damage: 1) ischemic and hypoxic; 2) damage caused by free oxygen radicals; 3) toxic. 1. Ischemic and hypoxic damage is most often associated with occlusion (blockage) (Scheme 2.2) of the arteries. Initially, hypoxia acts on the aerobic respiration of the cell - oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Since the oxygen tension in
  3. Cell damage mechanisms.
    The molecular mechanisms of cell damage leading to their death are very complex. Just as there are many causes of cell damage, there is no common single mechanism for their death. Although the point of application of the damaging agent is not always possible to determine, the four most sensitive intracellular systems are known. Firstly, it is the maintenance of the integrity of cell membranes, on which depends
  4. Causes of cell damage.
    Hypoxia is an extremely important and common cause of cell damage and death. The decrease in blood supply (ischemia) that occurs when obstruction in the arteries occurs, usually with atherosclerosis or thrombosis, is the main cause of hypoxia. Another reason may be inadequate blood oxygenation in cardiovascular failure. Decreased blood ability to
  5. MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
    The effects of mechanical effects on animals can be wounds, bruises, scratches, abrasions on the skin, hematomas, lymphatic extravasation, stretching and tearing of tissues, ruptures of internal organs, abdominal hemorrhages, bone fractures, paralysis, paresis, and shell shock. In animals intended for slaughter, mechanical damages received on farms that occur upon delivery to places are detected
  6. Morphology of cell damage and death.
    Reversible damage. In classical morphology, non-lethal cell damage is called dystrophy or reversible cell damage. Two types of such changes are distinguished light-optically: swelling and fat changes. Swelling develops when cells are unable to maintain ionic and fluid homeostasis. Fatty changes are characterized by the appearance of small or large lipid inclusions in
  7. NECROSIS. APOPTOSIS
    There are two options for local death, i.e. death of structures in a living organism - necrosis (cells and tissues) and
  8. SOFT TISSUE DAMAGE
    They are found mainly in dogs, but are often observed in other animals. They appear as a result of bites or cuts of parts of the body during the walk of the animal in the early morning or late evening, when it is difficult to count on outside help. {foto8} Bites from bites can be on the head, neck and trunk of animals. With cat bites, one or two puncture wounds left by sharp fangs are possible. At
  9. Cell damage in pathology
    Violation of the human body during diseases is always somehow connected with a change in the functioning of cells. In turn, the disruption of the cell’s functioning caused by the action of unfavorable factors, for example, lack of oxygen or the action of toxic compounds, may initially not cause damage to the cell: as soon as the surrounding conditions are restored to
  10. The molecular basis of apoptosis. Triggers: inducers and inhibitors of apoptosis. Effectors of apoptosis. The role of apoptosis in the development of immunopathology
    In a healthy person, cellular homeostasis is determined by the balance between cell death and proliferation. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death, an energy-dependent, genetically controlled process that is triggered by specific signals and relieves the body of weakened, unnecessary or damaged cells. Daily, approximately 5% of body cells are exposed
  11. PLANTS CAUSING MECHANICAL DAMAGE TO TISSUES
    Both the green parts of plants with sharp spines and spiky spines, as well as ripened fruits with sharp spikes, spikes and thorns, can cause injuries to animals. They damage the oral cavity, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract, as well as eyes, skin, inter-hoof spaces, udders and other organs. Damage to tissues is caused by feather grass, triosteum, bristle, moth, etc. However, more often
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