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Acmeological approach to the study of man as a subject of development and self-development

High professionalism and creative skill in its implementation by a variety of specialists is the main human resource, which becomes the most important factor in the optimal solution of pressing problems. In this sociocultural context, acmeology, a new integratively complex science, is of particular importance. It is she who studies the laws and technologies of the development of such peaks of professionalism and creativity as “acme”. At one time, S. L. Rubinstein, analyzing the life of a person, noted that this is a movement to more advanced, higher forms, to better manifestations of the human essence.

L. S. Vygotsky pointed to the increasing possibilities of man in organizing his life. The desire of a person to build his life in accordance with value priorities allows him to become relatively independent and free in relation to external factors.

A. N. Leontyev is one of the founders of creative and experimental research activities. Where the activity was considered as the subject of psychological research.

B. G. Ananiev put forward the idea of ​​the need to supplement the study of the mental world of a child and an elderly person with a study of the psyche of a mature person, and in the late 50s and during the 60s B. G. Ananiev and his students began to put on a theoretical and experimental level and solve problems that gave impetus to the development of acmeology. “... For the first time, the phenomenon of“ acme ”became the subject of study, this phenomenon is described as a multidimensional state of a person, covering a certain progressive period of his development, which is associated with large professional and individual changes, a conceptual apparatus of science has been developed that includes concepts such as“ acmeological principles and patterns “,“ acmeological space “,“ acmeogram “and others ...” (Derkach, 2007, p. 27).

The concept of “acme” is fundamental in acmeology. Some scientists consider the concept of “acme” as a sequential series of human achievements in life, focusing on the time aspect and quantitative characterization of “acme” in human life. Other researchers consider "acme" as the peak of individual and personal development of a person at the stages of life - childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age. Third researchers consider “acme” as the achievement of peaks by the individual and society.

N.V. Kuzmina emphasizes that "... the Greeks with fishing" acme "called the period of age in human life, when the maturity of everything that a person is capable of appears when they turned around, blossomed and at the top of their abilities are his strengths ..." (Kuzmina , 2001, p. 11).

A similar point of view is shared by another leading acmeologist A. A. Bodalev, noting that “...“ acme “is the entire stage of a person’s adulthood, which, if judged by it in general terms, is characterized by its physical, personal and subjective maturity ...” ( Boda Lion, 2002, p. 300). He notes that “... the term acme is also used in another sense of peaks and optimums that a person manages to achieve in his development at different age levels ...” (Bodalev, 1998, p. 5). In addition, considering “acme”, he emphasizes that “... a multidimensional state of a person, which although it covers a significant stage in his life and always shows how much he has taken place as a citizen, as a specialist, a hard worker in a certain field of activity, as a poor or rich person with his connections with the surrounding reality, as a spouse, as a parent, at the same time, he is never a static entity and, on the contrary, is more or less varied and variable ... (Shichalina, 1991, pp. 40-41).

Researcher Yu. A. Gagin also emphasizes the historical, Greek origin of this concept “... (gr. Akme - the highest degree of smth., Peak, flowering power, perfection + logos - word, speech, teaching) - the science of reaching the heights of human quality in mastery of perfection, including in the chosen professional activity ... ”(Gagin, 2004, p. 4).

P. A. Florensky wrote that acme is “the pinnacle in connection with the consideration of the concept of form in four-dimensional space. Not only man has “acme”, and besides each of the coordinates, but also animals and plants. Every thing has its flowering, the time of its most magnificent development, its own “acme”, when it is especially fully and especially whole represents for itself, in its four-dimensional integrity ”(Florensky, 1988, p. 15). From a psychological point of view, A. A. Bodalev characterizes acme as “the highest level of development for each person of his physical health, mind, feeling, will, interacting in such a way that he achieves the greatest result, manifesting himself as an individual, as a person and as a subject of activity ... ”(Bodalev, 1998, p. 5). V.P. Bransky defines acme as the pinnacle of "perfection and power" (Bransky, 2000, p. 9). A. A. Derkach emphasizes that acme is the highest level for each person in his development, which falls on some time period of his maturity.

The problem of acmeology as an integrative science and practice is associated with a new understanding of the subject of life as a combination of its natural, mental, personal conditions of functioning, on the one hand, social conditions on the other, and ways of organizing them on the third. A necessary prerequisite is a person’s ability to self-realization within the framework of a life strategy in such areas as self-awareness, reflection, self-determination, self-attitude, self-esteem, level of claims and self-regulation. The acmeological approach involves identifying the conditions for a person’s mobilization of the installation for the highest achievements, for the most complete self-realization of the personality. Great importance is attached to a person’s awareness of his individual profile of professionalism, pondering of individual strategies and trajectories of the movement toward professionalism (Derkach, 1998, p. 158). From the point of view of the acmeological approach, when assessing a professional, it is necessary to take into account not only external indicators of his activity (success, effectiveness) and internal conditions (motivation, satisfaction), but also the presence of constant specific motivation for highly productive activity, for progressive upward self-development.

Personality professionalism is a qualitative characteristic of the subject of labor, reflecting a high level of development of professionally important and personal-business qualities, an adequate level of claims, a motivational sphere and value orientations aimed at the progressive self-development of a specialist. One approach to highlighting the significant characteristics of the subject in professional activity is a model of the systemic-structural representation of the psychological organization of a person as a subject of self-development, proposed by L. M. Popov (Popov, Kashin, Starshinova, 2000, p. 37).

The space-time complex is a system-structural organization included in the processes of multidimensional human interaction with the world and with itself, as well as the methods of this interaction. The space-time complex consists of two components: static, or product-spatial, and dynamic, or process-time.

The static component is represented in the personality primarily by the body, psyche, and social parameters that have transformed into a biopsychosocial organization of an integral type.
For each person, the parameters mentioned add up to the levels of his structural organization. They constitute that integrity, which allows a person to become aware of himself as a body-sensual being, capable of an adequate orientation in time, space and society. Depending on the type of dominant interaction, these levels have their own severity indicator and development trend, which reflects the social order of the society or the individual's predisposition to actively interact within one of the levels of the spatial component.

At the pole of the subject, this component at the psychological level is found in products (models, images, ideas, concepts) and in the existence of a structural-level organization of intelligence, including its various manifestations: an empirical and theoretical level of orientation, visual-effective, visual-figurative, and abstract logical way of activity, intuitive and creative nature of transformations. At the same time, a person acts as a keeper of models obtained either in the process of practical transformation of reality and oneself, or in the course of analytical and synthetic activities of a high level of generalization.

The dynamic component is a real reflection of a person’s initiative actions in the form of continuous acts of interaction with objects of the external and internal planes: external and internal actions. This is the psychological mechanism of development and self-development of the dynamic component of the subject's PV complex.

The division of the spatio-temporal complex into static and dynamic components is difficult to catch. Transitions of the process to the product and vice versa go on continuously. And the fact that on the process side appears in dynamics and can be recorded in time, the same thing on the product side is found in the form of a resting property. The products of interaction, arising as a result of the process, turn into conditions for a new process.

Qualitative transformation can take place in two ways. According to the classical concepts of thinking (S. L. Rubinshtein, A. V. Brushlinsky), it is carried out in phases: the problem - you are moving a hypothesis - setting goals - solving problems - formulating conclusions and judgments. If we are guided by the approach of specialists in the field of creativity psychology, then a qualitative transformation should go through the following phases: the collapse of logical programs - incubation - intuitive insight - verbalization - formalization (Ponomarev, 1983, p. 106). In both cases, the process ends with the formation of a generalized internal model, an extremely formalized product.

Based on the previously formulated concept of a “psychological pendulum,” the processes of constant transitions of external actions to internal and vice versa are not only constant, but also contribute, thanks to the expansion of the amplitude of oscillations, to penetration into “zones of proximal development” (according to Vygotsky, 1972), i.e. . development and self-development of the subject.

The determinant complex is represented by external and internal determination. External determination is caused by the action of external causes, motivators. The most complete picture of them is given by the concept of E. A. Klimov, according to which there are five types of professions, and therefore, five types of objects: nature, a person, technology, signs, and artistic images.

Internal determination consists of two polyspheres: motivational-personal and self-polyspheres. The motivational-personal polysphere determines the direction of the subject's actions outside, and in the intramotivated version creates the conditions for constant self-change. It is represented by the following areas: ideological installation, where the person’s view of the world is focused, his attitude to it and the system of value orientations, attitudes is determined; general personality sphere, which consists of moral and ethical and individual typological layers; emotional-volitional sphere that creates a certain attitude to the object and mobilizes all the internal resources of a person to achieve the goals set by the subject.

Polysphere I imposes numerous personality shades on any process and product. It exists in the form of self-conscious and self-contributing. Self-investment is a motivational-personal predisposition of a person to initiative methods of contributions from outside and production of contributions to others, it is a kind of ability to influence others and take influence from others.

Self-conscious acts in the unity of three parties: self-knowledge, self-rejection, self-regulation-self-government. It is formed in a constant correlation of itself: with itself in the past and present (I-real), with others at the present time (I-mirror, I-with the eyes of others), with itself in the future (I-ideal, i.e. I would like to be Kim). E.A. Klimov also introduced the self-professional (Klimov, 2001, p. 512).

The main idea of ​​the problem of professional self-development is the idea of ​​determining the development of the personality by activity, therefore a person is studied from the standpoint of his conformity to the profession and the success of his activities. The formation of a professional is possible only as a result of the unity of development, both professionalism and personal development. Studying a person during his life's journey shows that the formation and manifestation of the qualities of an active subject of activity in him lasts as long as this activity continues.

Akmeologichnost passes through the entire history of mankind in education, and in culture, and in social development. In the framework of the acmeological approach, self-development is considered from the following positions: self-realization of his creative potential in the process of activity on the way to higher achievements; objective and subjective factors that promote and impede the achievement of peaks; patterns of training and professionalism in activities; self-education and self-organization, self-control, patterns of self-improvement, self-correction and self-reorganization of activities under the influence of new requirements, coming from the outside, from the profession and society, the development of science, culture, technology, and from the inside, from one’s own interests, needs and attitudes, awareness of one’s abilities and opportunities, advantages and disadvantages of their own activities.

Thus, self-development is accompanied by a change in the system of interactions and relationships of the individual, her needs, standards, value orientations. Therefore, in the general problems of research on personality development, a special place belongs to its personal and professional development, where professional and personal self-development can be understood and described not only as socialization, but also as secondary individualization, the result of which will be an accomplished individuality as a professional personal quality, as a characteristic of the subject activity in a specific activity upon reaching a certain level of education. In turn, education in that case will contribute to the formation of the individual as a professional, if it passes into self-education, upbringing into self-upbringing, and development into self-development and self-realization. For this, it is important to self-determination of the type of activity where a person is able to achieve “acme” - the peak of his success.
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Acmeological approach to the study of man as a subject of development and self-development

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