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Studying the process of mastering a person by profession

In addition to considering the development of the totality of the characteristics of a person in which his maturity, and in it his acme, expresses acmeology, acmeology scientifically analyzes maturity and acme is more narrowed, meaning only mastery of a person by a profession, achievement of a level of mastery in it. After all, it is clear that comprehension of the essence of professionalism, the vision and understanding of the paths leading to it, is not only purely theoretical, but also of great practical importance. The country has a huge number of people who work in politics, economics, in the field of management, in science, in many other areas of activity and are not professionals in the full meaning of the word. And summing up, such unprofessionalism leads to enormous losses in the construction of statehood, in the economy, in foreign and domestic policy, in industry and agriculture, in their management, in the field of upbringing and education, and in all other areas of society. Unprofessionalism contributes to the growth of tension in interethnic relations, leads to an increase in the number of interpersonal conflicts and to psychological discomfort in people's well-being.

From this it is clear how relevant is the development of a range of problems by acmeology: “professionalism and its basic characteristics”, “professionalism and maturity of a person”, “ways to prevent professional deformation”, “ways to achieve professionalism”, etc.

When we mean the high professionalism of a person, not only a bright development of abilities is associated with him, but also deep and wide knowledge in the field of activity in which this professionalism is manifested, as well as non-standard knowledge of the skills necessary for the successful implementation of this activity. Of course, true professionalism is always associated with a strong and stable motivational and emotional charge to carry out this particular activity and to achieve a unique, extraordinary result in it. Naturally, the latter will not happen if a person does not have the state of health necessary for his professional work.

In connection with the foregoing, the next task of acmeology is to, when studying the work of top-notch professionals in different fields of activity, single out the general that unites them, and thus scientifically reveal both the content of the phenomenon of high professionalism and the corresponding concept.

Real deep and wide professionalism (this is evidenced by the mastery of many prominent people) cannot grow out of a person's occupation by only one activity to which he devoted himself, especially if this activity is complex in nature. High professionalism, although it is impossible without the development of a person’s special abilities, which, both in their content and form, would be closely ground to the requirements of a particular activity, and without the knowledge and skills that correspond to these requirements, powerful development is also necessarily an essential condition for achieving such professionalism. a person has common abilities and the transformation of universal human values ​​into his own values, which means the moral upbringing of his personality.

Thus, in order to understand well the most characteristic features of professionalism, the high level of which is usually accessible to a person at the maturity level, it is necessary to clearly see the indispensable connection of the components of his mental formations with all other blocks of properties that are part of his personality and subjective structure, considered in a broad sense .

From all that has been said, another problem arises for us, related to the competence of acmeology, is the relationship between the features of professionalism of a mature person and other manifestations of the latter outside the scope of professional activity. Observations of manifestations of high professionalism in life often record stops in his growth, and sometimes his loss and also deformation of the personality of the professional himself. Description of the phenomenology of such cases, their classification, tracing the causes that cause them - this is also the task of acmeology.

Further, if we do not go from abstract schemes, but from life as it is, then we will not find professionalism “in general” in it, but we will encounter the professionalism of people manifested in specific areas of activity. However, we know without special reminders that "the common exists only in the separate and through the separate."

If you try to name these specific areas of activity, in which, along with the general features of professionalism, in each case, specific features are found, these will be the areas of "man - living nature", "man - community", "man - technology and inanimate nature", "man - man", "man - sign systems", "man - images of art."

The differences in the objects of activity, in the tasks that people working in each of these areas have to solve, the dissimilarity of the “technologies” that must be used to obtain a high result, which is different in each activity, is everything taken together determines the originality content and forms of professionalism in each of these areas. In addition, it must be borne in mind that there are certain types of activities that are more at the junction of these areas, and then, after all, inside each area, viewed both horizontally and vertically, there are always jobs, posts, positions that do not meet all the requirements for the people who occupy them. And, of course, in order to rightfully be among genuine professionals in all of these latter cases, a person must carry within himself, form his own abilities, very “differentiate” to acquire a specific fund of knowledge, skills, abilities and also learn how to address it very creatively use.

Thus, another multidimensional problem was highlighted, which is covered in breadth and depth by acmeology.

At the same time, both from the standpoint of creating a theory of the aforementioned new science, and in the interests of practice, one more approach is possible and necessary to study the phenomenon of professionalism that is most complex in its characteristics: research at various scientific levels, paired into a single integrated system, of the professionalism of people who work in such areas of our life that are important both for society as a whole and for each individual person, such as economics, politics, industry and agriculture, ideology, science, management, upbringing and education, how Noah business, health, culture (in the narrow sense), the work of law enforcement, media activities, sports, service.

In comprehending the factual material obtained in the study of professionals - masters of their craft, working in each of these areas, of course, their characteristics will be encountered as individuals, as individuals, as subjects, some of the features of their work, which will previously be revealed in the description and classification professionals, and the specificity of their activities carried out according to the above principle. But at the same time, one must be able to see in what general context of characteristics, some of which will be completely new for a professional in each field, they will fit, for example, with a politician, unlike a person who has successfully found himself in the field of ideology, or with a worker in the field upbringing and education, in contrast to a person working on radio or television. And it goes without saying that in all these cases it is essential to find out not only what specific context they fit into, but also with what meaning, so to speak, with what “weight” they entered into it. Further, determining the hierarchy of qualities in the revealed context, it is imperative to establish which of them are indispensable for a truly outstanding professional in each of these areas, and which of them can be replaced without damage to activities, compensated by other qualities.

Naturally, the answers to these difficult questions cannot be sought in isolation from the content of the above areas of activity, from the specific situations, “staff” and “contingency” that arise in them, from different forms of resources (in the broad sense) that a professional can use , carrying out its activities, and from a number of other factors. In a word, a wide field for scientific research opens up for acmeology and in the intended direction.

Without evidence, it is clear that the path to the heights of professionalism is long and difficult.
And it’s also clear that any Master in his main activity is unique, it doesn’t matter whether he is a turner or an airplane designer, a seamstress or military leader, a breeder or a criminal investigator. However, the latter does not exclude the fact that a well-thought-out organization of the child’s activities and relationships at preschool and younger ages, a targeted introduction of the teenager into the world of professions, subsequent theoretically and practically scientifically deeply tested and tested for effectiveness vocational education, if they are well associated with the general development of young people, significantly facilitate their inclusion in activities that will become central to their lives, and give each of them the opportunity to look for an algorithm of behavior that leads to working out of your individual style of activity and high professionalism. The latter must be emphasized especially, because as education cannot be recognized as successful, if a person does not have a need for self-education, so pre-vocational and professional training will not be complete if the person who has passed through them does not have a constant desire for professional growth.

From the foregoing, the task facing acmeologists is understandable: to offer, figuratively speaking, extremely technologically advanced strategy and tactics for organizing and practical implementation of the process of transferring a specialist starting his independent activity to ever higher levels of professionalism. The solution of this very laborious task will require the integration into a holistic system of the results of concrete sociological, concrete economic, pedagogical, psychophysiological, psychogenetic, age-psychological, socio-psychological, differential-psychological studies and, of course, studies on the psychology of work related to the problem raised . Correlation of the obtained data with each other and their reduction into a system, however difficult it may be, is also carried out now by acmeology.

From the point of view of the level of professionalism, not only an individual person working in a specific field of work can and should be assessed, but also different from each other in terms of size and in the nature of the community’s tasks they solve - a team, a crew, a teaching staff, a sports team, a theater troupe , department of the institute, prefecture, government, etc. And this is also an object that carries many problems that are subject to scientific coverage by acmeology. And finally, the most important task currently being solved by acmeology is the creation of methodological tools to identify the level of professionalism achieved by both an individual and a community of people.

As everyone understands, acmeology, entering our life as a scientific discipline, involves deep development of its specialists, whose field of work is the organization of conditions for optimal achievement by people of the individual, personal and active stages of maturity and socially valuable and creatively productive manifestation of each of them at this stage . Therefore, acmeology is also an educational discipline. This means: that in this capacity it successfully fulfills its role, it is necessary, in addition to deep and comprehensive disclosure of the subject of acmeology and its significance and place in the system of social sciences and man, the illumination of the laws and mechanisms to be studied by acmeology, as well as theoretical and practical significance of acmeology, as discussed partially partially above, didactically and methodically worked out to offer the attention of students studying this subject the scientific characteristics of the basic parameters and typologies of a person as an individual Yes, the personality, subject of activity and individuality at the maturity level and the most common options for achieving or not achieving a peak in a person’s development at this stage.

But a mere statement of the essence of these facts will not be enough unless the logic of making a certain "picture" of maturity and its specific manifestations, convincingly inscribed in various life contexts, is further traced, and the effective - both socially and psychologically specific - ways are not discussed helping a person with the goal of more optimal manifestation of himself as a person and as a hard worker-creator at the stage of maturity. And of course, since here all the time I mean mainly an adult, studying acmeology, comprehending this subject, we must adopt a practical "system" of transferring to this adult the "technology" of moving him to a higher level of physical health , citizenship, morality and, of course, professionalism in the main activity for him. It is equally important for acmeology to identify the phenomenology, laws and mechanisms of development of different types of communities and the purposeful use of this knowledge in order to more successfully solve these problems by the communities.


Since acmeology, unlike many other sciences, does not seek to unilaterally, but integrally study a person in the unity of all his hypostases, it is typical for her to use an integrated approach in the implementation of this study.

The study of the formation and development of man at the stage of adulthood and all the manifestations of this process is carried out by acmeology, revealing and taking into account the peculiarities of the formation and development of his individual, personal and subjective characteristics at the age stages preceding adulthood.

Carrying out such conjugation of the past and the present when revealing the characteristics of an adult and projecting their development into the future, acmeology establishes which microacmes preceded their achievement of macroacme and whether they were, and if not, why.

When conducting this study for acmeology, it is of particular importance to clarify the prerequisites for a person to go through his life's path, which are favorable for his formation in the future as a high-class professional.

For continuation of this line of scientific creativity for acmeology, the theoretical justification and practical creation of technologies that ensure the formation and development of the professionalism of people working, in particular, in the field of public service, are fundamentally important.

Equally significant for acmeology is the implementation of similar developments in relation to communities, so that they with maximum productivity solve the tasks for which they are created.

To successfully resolve all these complex problems, acmeology, applying an integrated approach to the study of a holistic person and different types of communities, is constantly improving its methodological tools, replenishing it with new techniques.

Test questions and tasks

1. What are the most common tasks that acmeology solves, bearing in mind the development of man at the stage of adulthood?

2. What tasks does acmeology solve, bearing in mind the mastery of a person by a profession?

3. What does characterization of a person as a professional mean?

4. What do you see the role of acmeology in improving the professionalism of specialists in various fields of activity?

5. Imagine that you are a previously unfamiliar adult person, and you need to establish what he is like as a subject of knowledge, communication and labor (in the field in which you are a specialist). What qualities of him in this case will you identify with him in the first place?

6. If the question arises before you: why is this person like that? What circumstances from his life in the past and what participation of him in them will interest you first of all?

7. If you are asked to actively intervene in the promotion of this person as a subject of knowledge, communication and labor to his acme (in a field close to your area of ​​activity), what immediate measures will you take in this case and why?

8. Before you is a work collective, headed by a man with an authoritarian leadership style for a long time, and he was replaced by a leader with a deep-rooted democratic style. What would you recommend doing in this case so that the development of the team goes upward, and why?
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Studying the process of mastering a person by profession

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