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ABOUT PERSONAL ACM OF HUMAN AND THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE IT

As you know, in psychology there is a widespread understanding of the psychological essence of personality as an “ensemble of relations” (L. I. Bozhovich, I. V. Dubrovina, E. V. Ilyenkov, V. N. Myasishchev, etc.). When the relation is meant, then in its content the connection between something and something, between something and someone and between someone and someone is thought. Moreover, in connection with something and someone, the second component of this connection is “burdened” with a psychological “supplement”. If this is an individual person, then he reflects what he is connected with by attitude, gives him an emotional response and responds with some kind of behavioral reaction. If this is not an individual person, but a community of people, then her attitude to something also carries the three characteristics described above - reflection, emotional reaction and behavioral response to this something.



If we have before us the relation of a person to a person or the relation of a person to a community, or a community of people to a person, or a community to a community, then they are psychologically “burdened”, i.e. including cognitive, emotional and behavioral characteristics are related to each other. At the same time, the emotional component turns out to be decisive in relation to it, which, as a rule, signals how the object of the relationship corresponds to the needs or value orientations of a person - the “carrier” of this relationship. For this reason, the attitude always, figuratively speaking, has a certain valency of being positive, negative, contradictory or indifferent. Perhaps it should also be noted that the psychological attitude is the integration of the results of acts of cognition by a person of an object, as well as the emotional and behavioral responses that a person gave to this object. And one more thing: with what or with whom a person (or community of people) interacts in the reality surrounding him, certainly causes him some kind of relationship.



We will no longer delve into the jungle of analysis of the relationship as such, which is only a particle of the “ensemble” that forms the personality, and we will move on to the characteristics of this ensemble itself and to the features of its functioning in the same adult in different life circumstances.



It is clear that different numbers of relationships can be included in ensembles of adult relationships. For some, it is small and the most pronounced attitude causes them only what ensures their daily existence. For others, it, on the contrary, can be very large and include everything that is connected with the past, and with the present, and with the future, not only of them, their close circle, but also of their country and even humanity.



Probably, in connection with the aforesaid, it will be appropriate to recall the thought of K. Marx that “the actual spiritual wealth of an individual depends on the richness of his actual relationship”.



But at the same time, one must be aware that under the real relationship K. Marx did not mean contemplation, not the prevalence of a person’s passive reflection of some side of reality and not even the accompaniment of this reflection with deep emotional experience, but primarily the active component of the relationship , the effectiveness of man in his relations with nature, the fulfillment of his professional duties, the manifestation in communication with other people of genuine humanity, etc., that is, real actions and deeds.



When analyzing the ensemble of relations that form the essence of the personality, it is found that some relations in this “ensemble” may have the predominant value, while others may not have such a dominant role.



In some adults, such a subordination or hierarchy of relations can be maintained for a long time when they go through a life path, while in others it can fluctuate or change radically under the influence of certain life circumstances.



Lighting up the problem of personality, it is interesting to see how the “ensemble” of relations, which is the essence of personality, manifests itself in the same adult when the circumstances of his life change. As mentioned above, the main component of the relationship is its emotional-need or emotional-value characteristic. And in ordinary, “normal” living conditions for adults, most of them demonstrate “in public” those relations that are considered moral, approved by the social group that is reference for a given adult. Although, of course, in real life it may be that the particular adult who dominates the hierarchy of other relations in his “ensemble” may not hide (especially if nothing is threatened for it), but manifest it publicly , say, an obsession with his favorite work (a positive example), a love of money (also a positive example now), approve of bribery, stating that a bribe is a form of gratitude for the service rendered to a person by some official ( neg positive example).



At the same time, a person may not even adjust to the relationships he demonstrates on a day-to-day basis under generally accepted patterns, but sincerely believe that these relationships, which coincide with socially approved ones, really constitute his personal essence. However, life, as it is, shows which relationships correspond to the needs and value orientations that are organically inherent in a given concrete person, and which are learned only externally. And this is revealed only when a person finds himself in a situation that is extreme for him.



When A.G. Lukashenko, the only deputy in the Supreme Soviet of the BSSR, disregarding the behavior of his other colleagues, once voted against the dismemberment of the USSR, he showed that the great power - the country of the Soviets - is the highest value for him, and this is his He expressed his attitude in an extremely extreme situation for him.



When harassed by opponents of genetics, supported by the highest authority in the country, academician N. I. Vavilov said: “We will burn, but we will not give up our convictions,” he also, in conditions extreme for him, showed what his true attitude to genetics is, the development which he considered the main business of his life.



When, under the conditions of the besieged Leningrad, some of its inhabitants went to cannibalism to save themselves, while others, guarding food, in scanty quantities at the most difficult time for the blockade, being transferred to the besieged city by airplanes, were starving to death, in this extreme situation it became clear what is the main value for the former, and what is for the latter.
And these values ​​clearly made themselves known in their relationship.



It seems that the problem discussed here is directly related to acmeology. After all, an adult’s acme when passing through his life path can manifest itself not only at the individual level (according to B.G. Ananiev, the individual is a person as a complex living organism) when he reaches the peak of his physical health, or on subjective-active level when he reaches his peak as a professional - Master. And it - this is acme - can also be personal, when a person commits an act or a series of actions that indicate that he, at the limit of his abilities, expressed himself as a Person highly developed in the spiritual and moral sense, defending with his effective attitude the basic values ​​of life and cultures, which, judging by his actions, have become his own values ​​that are deeply significant for him.



Naturally, the personal acme of different people at its core does not have the same spiritual and moral values ​​that have become their own values, which can be clearly seen even from the above examples. But it depends on the specific features of the development of the personality of each of them. In some people, the objective and subjective factors that determine their personal development are mated with each other in such a way that in the ensemble of relations that characterize their personality, humanity comes to the forefront in its highest expression, while others have a deep passion for the kind and content of labor that they love thirdly - selfless love for the Fatherland and readiness to give all of itself to its good, etc.



It is also obvious that, although each of the named relations dominates in the ensemble of all the others, but at the same time it is usually related to all the others by the nature of its essence, since one of the elements of the main values ​​of life and culture finds expression in it.



True, if you do not tear yourself away from real life, then there are cases in which, in the “ensemble” of relations that a specific person bears within himself, relationships that are conflicting in their moral basis are included. And then, which of them will prevail and manifest in the act corresponding to it, will depend entirely on the particular set of circumstances in which such a person falls.



I would be careful not to call the famous artist M. Ulyanov a double-dealing person, comparing his oral and written statements that were civilian in nature, dating back to the time when the USSR existed and when the Communist Party played a dominant role in the country, with its current civic position and political statements lining. It seems that the contradiction that clearly catches the eye when assessing the personality of the artist M. Ulyanov of the pre-Yeltsin period and M. Ulyanov of the time of Yeltsin is clearly a product of the fact that the personality of the artist evaluated here is not a whole person. The role of Marshal G.K. Zhukov - a monolithically integral personality - in the famous film was played by an artist whose personality combined a contradictory relationship. And which of them turned out to be and is in the foreground and objectified and objectified in actions - these were the circumstances that turned out to be the main factor for the artist M. Ulyanov, who actualized diametrically opposed relations to the same values.



There is no doubt only that the integrity of a person as a person always has a high degree of formation of his conscience. A constantly working conscience is simultaneously one of the conditions for minimizing the manifestation of inconsistency in the relationship of a person as a person to reality.



If a person is fighting two relationships, and one of them is based on a highly moral (existential, according to A. Maslow) need, and the basis of the other relationship is some kind of base need, for example, as the people figuratively says, to save his own skin or, if I put it intelligently, to maintain their position, then if a person’s voice of conscience wins, and the latter performs an act aimed at preserving, and sometimes at multiplying the basic values ​​of life and culture, this helps to weaken the contradictions in relations, the totality of which is the essence of his personality, and brings it closer to acquiring the quality of integrity, the psychological core of which is the spiritual and moral principle.



From what has been said, it is clear how important the work of a person’s conscience, which is ongoing, especially in important moral and important situations, is for promoting his personality to his acme. And the studies (Yu.V. Aleksandrova, N.L. Karpova, A.V. Suvorov, V.E. Chudnovsky) show that a prerequisite for initiating just such work is the constant activity of the inner world of a person, a spiritually-healthy orientation and a positive whose productivity is the result of the combined interaction of many objective and subjective factors and, above all, the nature of the contribution to this interaction that this particular adult himself makes. Thus, for example, it has been established in what a person sees the meaning of his life, in what ways he realizes it, what satisfies him from what he has achieved - this definitely influences the activity of his inner world. And at the same time, so to speak, the meaning of life adopted by him directly influences whether he manifests himself as a strategist, tactician or operationalist when passing his life path: these social and psychological types of personalities are completely different, if we compare them main parameters, inner worlds.
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ABOUT PERSONAL ACM OF HUMAN AND THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE IT

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