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Methods for assessing the maturity of conceptual structures of chemistry and indicators of special chemical abilities
To assess the maturity of the conceptual structures of chemistry and indicators of special chemical abilities, we have developed methods, the theoretical and empirical justification of which is presented in more detail in (Volkova, 2002, 2005, 2008):
1. The methodology “Chemical differentiations” (differentiation - distinguishing between close signals and choosing the only suitable response to the signal) is intended to assess the maturity of the concept of “substance”. The test subject receives successively several decks of cards with images of chemical formulas, which he arranges as quickly as possible into groups according to certain signs specified in the preliminary verbal instruction.
1. Simple differentiation - the global level of the hierarchy of the concept of "substance" (generic characteristics) - the classification of images of simple and complex substances.
2. Complex differentiation - the basic level of the concept of “substance” (species characteristics) is the classification of images of substances by belonging to a particular class of compounds (oxides, acids, salts, bases).
3. The most difficult differentiation (“chemical solitaire”) - a detailed level - a more complex classification of classes of compounds. The formulas of the substances were selected so that the subjects could not use the rules known to them.
2. The GreatChemist test is built on the same methodological foundations as the previous methodology, but covers a wide range of basic conceptual relationships that form the basis of modern chemistry. This test allows you to evaluate the adequacy, maturity, form of orderliness and speed (by the number of samples required to correctly complete the task) of the formation of the conceptual structures of chemistry. The test includes 13 subtests, in each subtest two samples of 42 stimuli (tasks for classification, establishing identity-differences, identifying cause-effect relationships, probabilistic assessment, etc.).
The test subject is invited to quickly and accurately divide the stimuli appearing on the screen in random order into groups (2, 3, 4, 14). The number of errors, the time of differentiation is taken into account. The test results are presented in two scales: the scale of "knowledge" (1-5 points; 5 points - 95% of the correct answers); “ability” scale - an assessment of the ability of subjects to distinguish significant invariants of chemical reality in a variety of conflicting stimulus material with the same level of knowledge.
The test is standardized on a sample of more than 1000 people, has a quality certificate.
3. Chemical dictation? The ability to preserve in the long-term memory the semiotic system of a chemical language is evaluated.
4. Chemical memory. To analyze the dependence of the amount of short-term memory on the characteristics of semantic material during auditory memorization, 4 groups of words were prepared: A - ordinary words (pencil, pear ..); B - regularity of arrangement of elements in groups, C - periodic regularity of arrangement of elements, D - elements of different groups and periods.
5. Chemical coding - a modified version of the subtest "coding" of the intelligence test of D. Wexler: sheet A - an arbitrary order of elements; sheets B, C - group sequence of elements; sheet D is a periodic sequence of elements.
6. Methods of direct scaling of the components of general and special abilities "MIKOSS". The subjects were asked to evaluate the current and desired level of development of general abilities (memory, intuition, thinking, language abilities, skillful hands, mathematical abilities, abilities to solve problems in physics) and special chemical abilities (chemical orientation of the mind, chemical memory, chemical intuition, chemical language, chemical thinking, experimental abilities, ability to carry out chemical calculations, general chemical abilities).
In addition, the methods of other authors were used:
7. Methodology for assessing interest in chemistry: the level of interest in chemistry was determined by the rank of interest in the subject compared to 24 areas of activity presented in the method of “Map of Interests” A.E. Golomstoka and according to the MIKOSS technique. The indicators of the level of interest by two methods correlate with each other (r = 0.407 ***, 278 people).
8. Test R.A. Lidina and L.L. Andreeva (1994) "Basic concepts of chemistry" consists of 70 theoretical and computational tasks with a choice of answer.
9. As an indicator of the success of mastering chemistry, the average score for the disciplines of the chemical cycle was calculated.
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Methods for assessing the maturity of conceptual structures of chemistry and indicators of special chemical abilities
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- Volkova E. V.. The development of mental structures as the basis of special abilities, 2011
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